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Involved in biosynthesis of the thiamine precursor thiazole.
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The THI1 alanine to valine substitution directly affects the rate of the thiazole biosynthesis.
Data indicate that the THI4 (AT5G54770) and the ThiM (AT3G24030)/THI4 mutants did not grow, as was expected, and the ThiM single mutant grew normally.
THI1 is targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria and is expressed in both shoots and roots during vegetative growth but more active in shoot tissues of mature plants. Expression is affected by high salinity, sugar deprivation and flooding.
A point mutation in the thi1 gene, involved in the synthesis of thiamin is responsible for the tz phenotype where the cotyledon is green but the leaves are white, and the plants die early during development.
analysis of the thiazole biosynthetic enzyme THI1 from Arabidopsis thaliana
Involved in biosynthesis of the thiamine precursor thiazole. Catalyzes the conversion of NAD and glycine to adenosine diphosphate 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid (ADT), an adenylated thiazole intermediate. The reaction includes an iron-dependent sulfide transfer from a conserved cysteine residue of the protein to a thiazole intermediate. The enzyme can only undergo a single turnover, which suggests it is a suicide enzyme. May have additional roles in adaptation to various stress conditions and in DNA damage tolerance.