The Independent Validation Initiative strives to provide you with high quality data.
Find out more
Background: Dual specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs) regulate mitogenic signal transduction and control the cell cycle. The crystal structure of a human DSP shows a shallow active site pocket in VHR allows for the hydrolysis of phosphorylated serine, threonine, or tyrosine protein residues, whereas the deeper active site of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) restricts substrate specificity to only phosphotyrosine. Positively charged crevices near the active site may explain the enzyme's preference for substrates with two phosphorylated residues. The VHR structure defines a conserved structural scaffold for both DSPs and PTPs. A ``recognition region,'' connecting helix alpha 1 to strand beta 1, may determine differences in substrate specificity between VHR, the PTPs, and other DSPs.