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Background: NFKB1 (MIM 164011) or NFKB2 (MIM 164012) is bound to REL (MIM 164910), RELA, or RELB (MIM 604758) to form the NFKB complex. The p50 (NFKB1)/p65 (RELA) heterodimer is the most abundant form of NFKB. The NFKB complex is inhibited by I-kappa-B proteins (NFKBIA, MIM 164008 or NFKBIB, MIM 604495), which inactivate NFKB by trapping it in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of serine residues on the I-kappa-B proteins by kinases (IKBKA, MIM 600664, or IKBKB, MIM 603258) marks them for destruction via the ubiquitination pathway, thereby allowing activation of the NFKB complex. Activated NFKB complex translocates into the nucleus and binds DNA at kappa-B-binding motifs such as 5-prime GGGRNNYYCC 3-prime or 5-prime HGGARNYYCC 3-prime (where H is A, C, or T, R is an A or G purine, and Y is a C or T pyrimidine).