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Background: ATF-2 (activating transcription factor-2, CRE-BP1) is a transcription factor that binds the cAMP response element (CRE) and AP-1 response element and is abundantly expressed in the brain. Various forms of cellular stress, including genotoxic agents, inflammatory cytokines, and UV irradiation, stimulate the transcriptional activity of ATF-2 (2). SAPK and p38 MAPK can activate, in response to cellular stress, ATF-2 by phosphorylating this protein at Thr69 and Thr71. Mutations of these sites result in the loss of stress-induced transcription by ATF-2 (2-4).