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Background: Hedgehog, WNT, FGF and BMP signaling pathways network together during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling pathway leads to pathological consequences in a variety of human tumors, such as gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer (1). The hedgehog family of morphogens are regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation and cell-cell communication. These morphogens have been shown to have important roles in organogenesis, spermatogenesis, stem cell maintenance and oncogenesis. Indian hedgehog (IHH) has been shown to be expressed in the uterine epithelium under the control of the steroid hormone, progesterone (2). It has been shown that IHH, synthesized by prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, regulates the site of hypertrophic differentiation by signaling to the periarticular growth plate and also determines the site of bone collar formation in the adjacent perichondrium. By providing crucial local signals from prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes to both chondrocytes and preosteoblasts, IHH couples chondrogenesis to osteogenesis in endochondral bone development (3).