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Background: The expression of VEGF and KDR correlates highly with the normal ocular vascularization in humans, but VEGF may also be necessary for nonvascular retinal developmental functions, especially for the coordination of neural retinal development and the preliminary steps of the establishment of the definitive stable retinal vasculature (1). KDR/flk-1 is one of two receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor, a potent angiogenic peptide. KDR/flk-1 is an early marker for endothelial cell progenitors, and its expression is restricted to endothelial cells in vivo (2). Therapeutic angiogenesis is likely to require the administration of factors that complement each other. Activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase KDR/Flk1 by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial, but molecular interactions of other factors with VEGF and Flk1 have been studied to a limited extent. Activation of KDR/Flt1 by PGF resulted in intermolecular transphosphorylation of Flk1, thereby amplifying VEGF-driven angiogenesis through KDR/Flk1. Even though VEGF and PGF both bind KDR/Flt1, PGF uniquely stimulated the phosphorylation of specific KDR/Flt1 tyrosine residues and the expression of distinct downstream target genes (3).