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These studies provide evidence that a signaling pathway involving agrin, Fgfs and Shh (show SHH Proteins) may be a critical target of ethanol exposure during zebrafish embryogenesis.
Agrin expression and function may be a target of ethanol exposure during embryogenesis.
Agrin plays an important role in both peripheral and CNS development and also modulates posterior development in zebrafish.
Reveal novel roles for APP (show APP Proteins) in regulating neuromuscular synapse formation through hetero-oligomeric interaction with LRP4 (show CORIN Proteins) and agrin and thereby provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern NMJ formation and maintenance.
Agrin is frequently upregulated and important for oncogenic property of hepatocellular carcinoma.
agrin contributes to barrier characteristics of brain endothelium.
NMJs in agrin-deficient mice rapidly disappear after birth. Agrin is essential for postnatal NMJ maintenance, but not for their embryonic formation, and also for the postnatal, but not prenatal, midmuscle localization of postsynaptic specializations.
reviews the evidence that agrin regulates synapse development, plasticity and signaling in the brain and discusses the evidence for the proposed mechanisms
Using gamma-secretase drug inhibitors and presenilin mutants in embryonic fibroblasts, we found that a mature gamma-secretase complex was required to repress neurotrypsin (show PRSS12 Proteins) expression and agrin cleavage.
Neural agrin slows the degradation of surface AChR in cultured muscle cellsb via phosphorylation of the AChR beta (show CHRNB1 Proteins) subunit (show POLG Proteins) at Y390, stabilizing AChR at developing synapses & adult neuromuscular junctions.
Agrin is Required for Maintenance of the Postsynaptic Apparatus. Agrin Loss Disrupts Nerve Terminal Organization
Two classic synaptic signalling systems (neural agrin and neuregulin-1 (show NRG1 Proteins)) converge upon MuSK (show MUSK Proteins) to regulate postsynaptic differentiation.
Agrin induces association of Chrna1 (show CHRNA1 Proteins) mRNA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in C2C12 myotubes.
Knockdown of agrin and perlecan (show HSPG2 Proteins) promoted a decrease on cell migration and adhesion, and on resistance of cells to cisplatin.
Among 42 hip fractured patients (age 83.7+/-8.6 years, 76.2% women), sarcopenia was diagnosed in 7 individuals (16.7%). Serum C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF (show KAT2B Proteins)) levels were significantly higher in sarcopenic relative to non-sarcopenic patients.
In patients suffering from severe sepsis and septic shock, serum levels of C-terminal agrin fragment were significantly associated with kidney function and the need for renal replacement therapy and were not influenced by severe septic conditions.
MuSK (show MUSK Proteins) myasthenia gravis IgG4 disrupts the interaction of LRP4 (show LRP4 Proteins) with MuSK (show MUSK Proteins) but both IgG4 and IgG1-3 can disperse preformed agrin-independent AChR clusters
these observations indicate that agrin is another autoantigen in patients with MG and agrin autoantibodies may be pathogenic through inhibition of agrin/LRP4 (show LRP4 Proteins)/MuSK (show MUSK Proteins) signaling at the NMJ.
Five new recessive mutations in the gene encoding agrin are identified in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome.
study identifies a spontaneous agrin mutation that reduces the ability of z+ agrin to activate MuSK (show MUSK Proteins) and induce AChR clustering; this results in a severe congenital myasthenic syndrome in the patient, with both pre- and postsynaptic defects at the neuromuscular junction
Dynamics of expression patterns of agrin in human glioblastoma
In contrast to wild-type neurons which form synapses and survive for prolonged periods, agrin-deficient neurons do not mature and are rapidly eliminated in the transgenic olfactory bulb.
Agrin immunohistochemistry may facilitate determination of primary versus metastatic origin in problematic liver cancer cases.
This gene encodes one of several proteins that are critical in the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), as identified in mouse knock-out studies. The encoded protein contains several laminin G, Kazal type serine protease inhibitor, and epidermal growth factor domains. Additional post-translational modifications occur to add glycosaminoglycans and disulfide bonds. In one family with congenital myasthenic syndrome affecting limb-girdle muscles, a mutation in this gene was found.
, agrin proteoglycan
, heparan sulfate proteoglycan