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Granuphilin makes granules immobile and fusion-reluctant beneath the plasma membrane. Those granuphilin-positive, docked granules release a portion of granuphilin upon fusion, and fuse at a frequency and time course similar to those of granuphilin-negative undocked granules. Granuphilin forms a 180-nm cluster at the site of each docked granule, along with granuphilin-interacting Rab27a (show RAB27A ELISA Kits) and Munc18-1 (show STXBP1 ELISA Kits) clusters.
GLUT5 (show SLC2A5 ELISA Kits) required an interaction cascade of Rab11 (show RAB11A ELISA Kits), Myo5B, Slp4a, Munc18-2 (show STXBP2 ELISA Kits), and Vamp7 (show VAMP7 ELISA Kits) with Stx3 (show STX3 ELISA Kits).
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binds to the concave surface of granuphilin-C2A domain. The key residues involved in the binding were validated by mutation analysis.
the mechanisms of granuphilin plasma membrane targeting and release
Recruitment of STXBP1 (show STXBP1 ELISA Kits) by the Rab27A (show RAB27A ELISA Kits) effector SYTL4 promotes Weibel-Palade body exocytosis.
Slp4 (show S1PR4 ELISA Kits) and Rab8 (show RAB8A ELISA Kits) are expressed and interact in human platelets, and might be involved in dense granule release.
in insulin (show INS ELISA Kits)-producing cells adequate levels of mir (show MLXIP ELISA Kits)-9 are mandatory for maintaining appropriate Granuphilin levels and optimal secretory capacity
Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 (Slp4)/granuphilin-a contains an N-terminal Slp (show SEPT9 ELISA Kits) homology domain (SHD) (PMID: 11327731). The SHD of Slp4 (show S1PR4 ELISA Kits) specifically and directly binds the GTP (show AK3 ELISA Kits)-bound form of Rab3A (show RAB3A ELISA Kits), Rab8 (show RAB8A ELISA Kits), and Rab27A (show RAB27A ELISA Kits).
Granuphilin and exophilin7, differentially regulate the exocytosis of either stably or minimally docked granules, respectively.
granuphilin binds to syntaxin-2 (show STX2 ELISA Kits) and syntaxin-3 (show STX3 ELISA Kits) as well as syntaxin-1a (show STX1A ELISA Kits), it likely mediates granule docking through interactions with those multiple syntaxins on the plasma membrane.
granuphilin promotes the plasma membrane targeting of insulin (show INS ELISA Kits) granules via interaction with syntaxin 1a (show STX1A ELISA Kits)
It is shown that the granuphilin promoter is a target of SREBP-1c (show SREBF1 ELISA Kits), a transcription factor that controls fatty acid synthesis, and MafA (show MAFA ELISA Kits), a beta (show SUCLA2 ELISA Kits) cell differentiation factor
Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 (Slp4)/granuphilin-a contains an N-terminal Slp (show SEPT9 ELISA Kits) homology domain (SHD) (PMID: 11327731). The SHD of Slp4 specifically and directly binds the GTP (show AK3 ELISA Kits)-bound form of Rab3A (show RAB3A ELISA Kits), Rab8 (show RAB8A ELISA Kits), and Rab27A (show RAB27A ELISA Kits).
This gene encodes a member of the synaptotagmin like protein family. Members of this family are characterized by an N-terminal Rab27 binding domain and C-terminal tandem C2 domains. The encoded protein binds specific small Rab GTPases and is involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. This protein binds Rab27 and may be involved in inhibiting dense core vesicle exocytosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein.
synaptotagmin-like 4 (granuphilin-a)
, synaptotagmin-like 4
, synaptotagmin-like protein 4
, granuphilin b