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Epithelial Cell Markers

  • Their purpose is to function as a barrier, protecting the body from mechanical damage, invading micro organisms and the loss of body fluids.
  • Detection of epithelial cells has a central role in research on cancer diseases.
  • A range of antibodies has been established for detection of individual epithelial cells.
  • Some standard markers are: anti-epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) antibody and pan-cytokeratin antibody

Standard markers of epithelial cells

Traditional epithelial marker are , ( also called ) and pan cytokeratin. is not produced by all epithelia, though, among them gastrointestinal epithelia and endocervical epithelia.

Recommended antibodies:

Cytokeratins

But cytokeratins are produced by all epithelial cells and, being intermediate filaments, make up the major part of the . Until now, 20 different cytokeratins have been discovered, all of which can be organised in two groups: the acidic cytokeratins (type A, 9-20) and the basic cytokeratins (type B, 1-8). Epithelial cells always express a type A cytokeratin together with a type B cytokeratin. They will form a complex, ensuring every epithelium contains at least 2 cytokeratins. To mark all epithelium types, antibody clones KL1 and MNF-116 can be used, or AE1/AE3, an antibody mixture of an antibody directed against acidic and one against basic cytokeratins.

Recommended antibodies:

Specific epithelia can thus be detected by the correct combination of cytokeratin antibodies or with antibodies directed against a single cytokeratin. For example, cytokeratin 15 is a marker of hair follicle stem cells. This immunohistochemical analysis serves the allocation of tumours, or rather the matching of metastases and their primary tumour, because all epithelia and their associated tumours express a certain set of cytokeratins. Therefore, the location of the primary tumour can be limited to certain tissues based on the cytokeratins present.

Cell adhesion molecules

Most other epithelial markers are cell adhesion molecules, which play a role in the tight junctions between epithelial cells to make them impermeable. Among them E-cadherin, a cell-cell adhesion molecule at the contact areas of epithelial cells. E-cadherin is expressed in all epithelia, except for neuronal epithelium.
The epithelium specific antigen EpCAM is also a cell adhesion molecule and occurs in most healthy epithelial cells, but not in mucous squamous epithelium like the one in the upper airways and intestine. EpCAM is also a tumour marker, just as CA125 Ovarian Cancer Antigen is, a cell surface protein.
Under normal conditions, CA125 is additionally expressed in the cornea, conjunctiva, the middle ear and in the trachea.

Recommended antibodies:

Cell-surface proteins

The cell-surface protein CA125 Ovarian Cancer Antigen is a tumor marker. Under certain circumstances is expressed in the human epithelial of the cornea, conjunctiva, the middle ear and the trachea.

Below you may find the most frequently used markers for epithelial cells including their specificity. By clicking on the antigens in the "selected antibodies" column you will reach the corresponding products.

Marker Specificity Type Selected antibodies
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, ALCAM/CD166 Endometrial epithelium. ALCAM is a cell adhesion molecule, a type I membrane glycoprotein form the family of immunoglobulins. Synonyms in Gallus gallus are CD166, MEMD oder SC-1/DM-GRASP/BEN, the synonym in Rattus rattus is KG-CAM. specific for epithelial subset CD166 antibody
Adenosine 5'-Triphosphatase In vitro marker for cell line and differentiation of oncogenic epithelial cells in the hepatic parenchym of the rat. specific for epithelial subset ATpase antibody
Aminopeptidase N/ANPEP, CD13, Alanyl Aminopeptidase Mikroglia derived exosome, endothel. In many cells, tissues and species ANP cuts N-terminal amino acids of bioactive peptides, to inactivate or degrade them. ANP plays a role in various biological processes, among them antigen processing and presentation, cell adhesion, tumour invasion and metastasis, neurotransmitter degradation and serving as receptor of certain corona viruses. At the same time, ANP/CD13 is a marker for epithelial mesenchym of the skin and marker for the apical pole of thyroid epithelial cells in pigs, in vivo and in vitro. specific for epithelial subset Aminopeptidase N (ANPEP) antibody
Basal Bodies of Cilia (LhS28) Basal bodies of ciliated epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Basal Bodies of Cilia antibody
Basal Cell Cytokeratin Basal cells in combined epithelium and stratified epithelium, as well as stem cells and mitotic cells all epithelia Cytokeratin (Basal Cells) antibody
beta-Crystallin Epithelial cells of the chicken lens in vitro specific for epithelial subset beta-Crystallin antibody
beta-Defensin 2 Tissue-specific produced in the skin, airway epithelia and keratinocytes specific for epithelial subset Beta-Defensin 2 antibody
beta-Defensin 3 Tissue-specific for the salivary gland, pankreas and gonads specific for epithelial subset Beta-Defensin 3 antibody
Bmi-1 oncoprotein Several tissues, among them adult hematopoietic stem cells and adulte neuronal stem cells of the peripheral and central nervous system. specific for epithelial subset RING finger protein (BMI-1) antibody
BRCA1 Basal and/or luminal epithelial cells of the breast specific for epithelial subset BRCA1 antibody
BTEB1 Human endometrial carcinoma cell line Hec-1-A specific for epithelial subset Transcription Factor Bteb (KLF9) antibody
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) Lung epithelial cells in the early embryo and neuroendocrine cells in the late stages specific for epithelial subset CGRP antibody
Calcyclin Human epithelial cells and fibroblasts specific for epithelial subset Calcyclin antibody
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Epithelium differentiation specific for epithelial subset CEA antibody
Cathepsin E (CaE) Marker of normaler gastric superficial/foveolar epithelal cells specific for epithelial subset Cathepsin E antibody
Caveolin-1 Many cell types that produce caveolae. In the Lunge it's type I alveolar epithelial cells, rarely type II specific for epithelial subset Caveolin 1 antibody
CD138 (Syndecan-1) Squamous epithelial cells, lymphocytes in development, plasmacytes, bone marrow cells specific for epithelial subset CD138 antibody
CD151 Endothelia, epithelia, megakaryocytes and thrombocytes specific for epithelial subset CD151 antibody
CD46 Leukocytes, thrombocytes, epithelial cells and fibroblasts specific for epithelial subset CD46 antibody
Clara cell-specific protein Specific marker of bronchiolar clara cells specific for epithelial subset Clara Cell Protein antibody
Connexin-43 (Cx43) Strong expression in cornea and suprabasal limbal epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Connexin 43 antibody
Cornulin, CRNN, C1ORF10, SEP53 Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium, late stage of keratocyte differentiation specific for epithelial subset Cornulin antibody
Cystatin C Proximal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney specific for epithelial subset Cystatin C antibody
Cytokeratin 10 Suprabasal layers of epidermis and squamous epithalium derived carcinoma specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 10 antibody
Cytokeratin 12 Differentiated corneal epithelium, conjunctiva, epithelial stem cells specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 3,12 antibody
Cytokeratin 13 Squamous epithelial metaplasia specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 13 antibody
Cytokeratin 1-3 Stratified squamous epithelia, cornea specific for epithelial subset No antibodies available yet
Cytokeratin 14 Squamous epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 14 antibody
Cytokeratin 15 Basal keratinocytes, specific for hair follicle stem cells specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 15 antibody
Cytokeratin 16 Keratinocytes, certain carcinoma, wound healing, psoriasis specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 16 antibody
Cytokeratin 17 Myoepithelal cells of several glandular lumen, intramural cytotrophoblasts, trophoblasts of the junction zone specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 17 antibody
Cytokeratin 18 Proliferating malign epithelial cells, among them breast, ovaries, lungs, prostate, bladder & gastrointestina, epithelium-specific intermediate filaments, possibly apoptotic epithelia specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 18 antibody
Cytokeratin 19 Many simple epithelia, micrometastases of non-small cell lung carcinoma, malign breast cancer, differentiated urothelium, glandular epithelia and carcinoma, neoplasia of prostate epithelia specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 19 antibody
Cytokeratin 20 Adenocarcinoma of the intestine, carcinoma of transitional epitheliua in the bladder, Merkel cell skin carcinoma specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 20 antibody
Cytokeratin 3 Cell lines of corneal epithelium specific for epithelial subset No antibodies available yet
Cytokeratin 4 Predominantly non-keratinised squamous epithelia like surficial and intermediate epithelial cells in oesophagus, ectocervix, tongue, vagina, larynx, pharynx, epiglottis, anus and cornea. specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 4 antibody
Cytokeratin 5 Normal epithelial cells of the breast, in vitro, not in tumour cell lines specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 5 antibody
Cytokeratin 5, 6 Mesothelial cells, epitheloid mesothelioma specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 5 & 6 antibody
Cytokeratin 7 Ducts and glands, epithelial marker of bile differentiation and biliary cirrhosis, adenocarcinoma of the ovaries, breast and lungs specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 7 antibody
Cytokeratin 8 Simple epithelial cells and all adenocarcinoma & heptoma and luminal cells, prostate epithelia specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 8 antibody
Cytokeratin 8, 14, 18, 19 Marker for differentiation of prostate epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 8,18,19 antibody
Cytokeratin 8, 18 Occult lymph node metastases of colorectal carcinoma and hepatoma specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin 8 & 18 antibody
Cytokeratin AE1 Cytokeratins with high molecular weight (cytokeratins 10, 14, 15, 16) and cytokeratin 19 with low molecular weight specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin AE1 antibody
Cytokeratin AE3 Cytokeratins with high molecular weight (cytokeratins 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and cytokeratins 7 & 8 with low molecular weight specific for epithelial subset Cytokeratin AE3 antibody
Desmin Marker for the discrimination of reactive mesothelia and malign epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Desmin antibody
Desmocollin-2 Desmosomes of epithelial cells, epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, downregulated in carcinomas of the intestine specific for epithelial subset Desmocollin 2 antibody
Desmocollin-3 Desmosomes of epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Desmocollin 3 antibody
E-Cadherin Surface of epithelial cells and immature erythrocytes specific for epithelial subset E-Cadherin antibody
Epithelial Antigen antibody (Ber-EP4) Epithel-spezifisch specific for epithelial subset Epithelial Antigen antibody
Epithelial Membrane Antigen Surface of breast epithalial cells and most secreting epithelial cells and their associated carcinomas. specific for epithelial subset Epithelial Membrane Antigen antibody
Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA, MUC-1, CA 15-3, CD227) Surface of the breast epithelium, most epithelial carcinomas and carcinoma of the ovaries. specific for epithelial subset MUC-1 (CD227, CA 15-3) antibody
Epithelial Mucin Antigen (EMA, Mc5) Surface of most epithelial cells and carcinomas specific for epithelial subset Epithelial Mucin Antigen (Mc5) antibody
Epithelial Sodium Channel-α Surface of many epithelial gustatory cells and renal tubule cells specific for epithelial subset epithelial Sodium Channel alpha antibody
Epithelial Sodium Channel-β Surface of many epithelial gustatory cells and renal tubule cells specific for epithelial subset epithelial Sodium Channel beta antibody
Epithelial Sodium Channel-γ Surface of many epithelial gustatory cells and renal tubule cells specific for epithelial subset epithelial Sodium Channel gamma antibody
Epithelial Sodium Channel-δ Surface of many epithelial gustatory cells and renal tubule cells specific for epithelial subset No antibodies available yet
Epithelium specific antigen (EP-CAM, ESA) (AUA1) Marker for epithelial cells in body fluids. Basolateral cell surfaces of most epithelial cells and carcinomas. Among those foetal tissues like lungs, kidney, liver, pankreas, skin and gametes. EpCAM is also known as KS1/4, gp40, GA733-2, 17-1A, and TROP-1. It is a transmembrane glykoprotein, functioning as homophil calcium-independent adhesion molecule. specific for epithelial subset EP-Cam antibody
Epithelium/endothelial cells [PCX, Podocalyxin] Kidney, surface of specific epithelial cells: breast, salivary gland, pankreas and glomeruli specific for epithelial subset Podocalyxin antibody
Exo-1 (Pa-G14) Normal and tumourous glandular epithalial cells specific for epithelial subset Exo-1 antibody
EZH2 Marker for aggressive breast cancer, enhances neoplastic transformation of breast epithalial cells specific for epithelial subset EZH2 antibody
Ezrin Glomerular epithelial cells in developing glomeruli, mature glomeruli and glomerular epithelial cells in vitro specific for epithelial subset Ezrin antibody
Fas Ligand/TNFSF6 Activated T-cells and natural killer cells specific for epithelial subset TNFSF6 antibody
Fibrinogen (1F3) Marker for injuries of kidney epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Fibrinogen antibody
Foxa1 Epithelial cells of the airways and alveolar cells type II in the lung specific for epithelial subset FOXA1 antibody
GABRP Specific in alveolar epithelial cells type II (AEC II) specific for epithelial subset GABRP antibody
Galectin-3 Marker of differentiation for squamous epithelial carcinomas and normal epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Galectin-3 antibody
Pan-Cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) all epithelia all epithelia Pan-Zytokeratin antibody (AE1/AE3)
Pan-Cytokeratin (KL1) all epithelia all epithelia Pan-Zytokeratin antibody (KL1)
GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) Normal and neoplastic epithelial cells of the human skin, discriminates malign tumours and benign epithelial tumours of the human skin specific for epithelial subset GGT antibody
Glutamine Synthetase Glutamine synthetase is expressed in the pigmented epithelium of the retina (RPE) during the first trimester of pregnancy. In the 4. month and later pregnancy, glutamine synthase can not be immunohistochemically detected in the RPE any more. specific for epithelial subset Glutamine Synthetase antibody
Heat Shock Protein 27 [HSP27] Stressed skin tissue, melanomas, some breast tumours specific for epithelial subset Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP-27) antibody
HLA-DR Epithelium of intestinal polyps, epithlia infected with viral verrucas specific for epithelial subset HLA-DR antibody
Lactoferrin Secretory cells from bonw marrow and breast epithelium (marker of cell differentiation) specific for epithelial subset Lactoferrin antibody
LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1) Marker of HC11 murine breast epithelial cell differentiation specific for epithelial subset LAMP-1 antibody
Lectin Species differences in lectin binding to lung cells: soy bean agglutinin as marker of type I alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages in minipigs specific for epithelial subset No antibodies available yet
Lectins Ruminal epithelium (marker of differentiation) specific for epithelial subset No antibodies available yet
Leu-7 Epithelium of the lens specific for epithelial subset No antibodies available yet
MMR Macrophages inside of tissues, myeloid dendritic cells and lymphatic and hepatic endothelial cells specific for epithelial subset CD206 (MMR) antibody
MOC-31 Epithelial marker specific for epithelial subset antibody gegen Lung Carcinoma Cluster 2 (MOC 31), Ep CAM, CD326
NCAM-L1 (neural cell adhesion molecule L1) Adhesion molecule, expressed exclusively in neurons. specific for epithelial subset CD171 (L1 NCAM) antibody
Nectin-2/CD112 Nectin-1, Nectin-2 (CD112, PRR2, HVEB) and Nectin-3 (PRR3) are expressed on neurons, endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Nectin-4 is mainly expressed in the placenta. specific for epithelial subset CD112/Nectin-2/PRR2 antibody
Normal Epithelial Cell Specific-1 (NES1)/kallikrein-10 Epithalial cells of breast and prostate specific for epithelial subset Kallikrein-10 antibody
NSE (neuron-specific enolase) Epithelial cells in the medulla (brain) specific for epithelial subset NSE (neuron-specific enolase) antibody
Ovarian Cancer Antigen [CA125] Epithelia of the fallopian tube, endometrium, endocervix and ovaries, mesothelial cells of the pleura, the pericard and the peritoneum specific for epithelial subset CA125 antibody
p16 (INK4A) Dysplasia and neoplasia of epithelial cells of the Cervix uteri specific for epithelial subset p16 INK4a antibody
P2X7 Alveolar epithelial cells type I (AEC I) specific for epithelial subset Purinergic Receptor P2x, Ligand-Gated Ion Channel, 7 (P2RX7) antibody
p63 Myoepithelial cells with naked nuclei in epithelial myoepithelial carcinomas specific for epithelial subset p63 antibody
P-Cadherin Normal epithelial tissue specific for epithelial subset P-Cadherin antibody
pIgR Secretary epithelial cells in exocrine tissue. pIgR carries IgA and IgM through the epithlium. specific for epithelial subset Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (PIGR) antibody
Prominin-1 (CD133) Neuroepithelal cells, epithelial stem cells of the prostate specific for epithelial subset Prominin-1 antibody
Prostasin/Prss8 Strongly expressed in the prostate, less strong in the lungs, kidney, liver, salivary gland and pankreas. specific for epithelial subset Protease, Serine, 8 (Prostasin) (PRSS8)
Prostate Specific Antigen [PSA] Prostate epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) antibody
Prostatic Binding Protein (PBP) Androgen-dependent marker of prostate epithelium specific for epithelial subset Prostatic Binding Protein (PBP) antibody
Prosurfactant Protein B Airways, alveolar epithelial cells type II, adenocarcinoma with acinal, papillar, bronchioalveolar and solid growth patterns specific for epithelial subset Prosurfactant Protein B antibody
Prosurfactant Protein C Only pulmonar alveolar epithelial cells type II specific for epithelial subset Prosurfactant Protein C (proSP-C) antibody
Protein Gene Product 9.5(PGP 9.5) Parietal epithelial cells of the Bowman's capsule, exclusively in the subtype of cortical epithelial cells, predominantly inside the inner cortex specific for epithelial subset Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP9.5) antibody
PSCA (Prostate stem cell antigen) Intermediate prostate epithelial cells in late stages of differentiation specific for epithelial subset Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) antibody
Rab13 Junctional complex region of many different epithelia like e.g. intestine, kidney, liver and endothelial cells specific for epithelial subset RAB13, Member RAS Oncogene Family (RAB13) antibody
RAGE Human alveolar epithelial cells type I specific for epithelial subset RAGE antibody
Rex-1 (zinc-finger protein-42, Zfp42) Normal human keratinocytes in the epidermis, normal prostate epithelial cells, bronchial and small lung epithelial cells in the airways specific for epithelial subset Zinc Finger Protein 42 (ZFP42) antibody
Secretory Component (SC) Glandular epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset Secretory component antibody
Sucrase-isomaltase (SI) Foetal and malign epithelial cells of the human intestine specific for epithelial subset Sucrase-Isomaltase (alpha-glucosidase) (SI) antibody
Surfactant Protein A Airways, epithelium of the eustachian tube, alveolar epithelial cells type II and Clara cells specific for epithelial subset Surfactant Protein A antibody
Surfactant Protein B Airways, alveolar epithelial cells type II, adenocarcinoma with acinal, papillar, bronchioalveolar and solid growth patterns specific for epithelial subset Surfactant Protein B antibody
Surfactant protein C (SPC) Alveolar epithelial cells type II specific for epithelial subset No antibodies available yet
Surfactant Protein D All Airways, alveolar epithelial cells type II, unciliated airway epithelial cells, Clara cells, trachial and bronchial glands, mucosa surfaces of several organs specific for epithelial subset Surfactant protein D antibody
Survivin Epithelial carcinoma and benign cervical cells specific for epithelial subset Survivin antibody
TfR (Transferrin Rezeptor) Almost all cell types, limited to liver and intestinal tissue. specific for epithelial subset Transferrin Receptor antibody
Transthyretin Epithelial cells of renal tubules specific for epithelial subset Transthyretin (TTR) antibody
UGRP1/SCGB3A2 Lung epithelium specific for epithelial subset Secretoglobin, family 3A, member 2 (SCGB3A2) antibody
VAT-1 Calcium regulated marker of human epithelial cells specific for epithelial subset VAT-1 antibody
Vimentin Epithelial cells of the tonsils specific for epithelial subset Vimentin antibody
Wilms Tumor Kidney, mesothelium, Wilms Tumour and mesotheliomas specific for epithelial subset Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) antibody

We are happy to support you in finding a suitable epithelial marker for your research project (phone: +49 (0)241 95 163 153, e-mail: support@antibodies-online.com).

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