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Smad3 and NFAT cooperate to induce Foxp3 expression through its enhancer

Scientists from the University of Pennsylvania generated a model system for analysing induction and identified an enhancer element in this gene when they used their model system with primary .

So far, details on the mechanism of expression and transcriptional regulation have remained unknown. Research on that matter requires Treg cells which only grow in small numbers in mononuclear cell populations.

But with a new system the two transcription factors and were discovered to be essential for activity of the enhancer. Both factors contribute to histone acetylation in the enhancer region and induction of .

These discoveries may explain the effects of on the function of + Treg cells.

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