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Structure of the human Atg13-Atg101 (show C12orf44 Proteins) HORMA heterodimer in the ULK1 (show ULK1 Proteins) complex that controls autophagy has been described.
Specific affinity of the LC3 (show MAP1LC3A Proteins) isoforms to the Atg13 LC3 (show MAP1LC3A Proteins)-interacting region is required for proper autophagosome formation.
In response to DNA damage, ULK1 (show ULK1 Proteins) and ULK2 (show ULK2 Proteins) are upregulated by p53 (show TP53 Proteins). The upregulation of ULK1 (show ULK1 Proteins) (ULK2 (show ULK2 Proteins))/ATG13 complex by p53 (show TP53 Proteins) is necessary for the sustained autophagy activity induced by DNA damage.
The gene product is the functional homologue of yeast Atg13, and required for autophagy in mammalian cells.
mTORC1 suppresses autophagy through direct regulation of the approximately 3-MDa ULK1-Atg13-FIP200 complex.
The ULK-Atg13-FIP200 complexes are direct targets of mTOR (show FRAP1 Proteins) and important regulators of autophagy in response to mTOR (show FRAP1 Proteins) signaling.
ATG13 and ULK1 are phosphorylated by the mTOR pathway in a nutrient starvation-regulated manner, indicating that the ULK1.ATG13.FIP200 complex acts as a node for integrating incoming autophagy signals into autophagosome biogenesis.
The identification of the novel protein, Atg101 (show C12orf44 Proteins), and the validation of Atg13 and Atg101 (show C12orf44 Proteins) as ULK1 (show ULK1 Proteins)-interacting proteins, suggests an Atg1 (show ULK1 Proteins) complex is involved in the induction of macroautophagy in mammalian cells.
These data suggest that Atg101 is a novel Atg protein that functions together with ULK, Atg13 and FIP200.
Studies elucidated the inhibitory mechanism in which mTORC1 phosphorylates the autophagy regulatory complex containing unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1 (show ULK1 Proteins)), the mammalian Atg13 protein, and focal adhesion kinase interacting protein (show CIB1 Proteins) of 200 kD (FIP200).
ATG13 phosphorylation plays a crucial role in autophagy regulation.
autophagy can be executed by mechanisms that are dependent or independent of the ULK1 (show ULK1 Proteins)/2-ATG13 interaction.
Atg13-deficient embryos show growth retardation and myocardial growth defects.
Autophagy factor required for autophagosome formation (By similarity). Target of the TOR kinase signaling pathway that regulates autophagy through the control of the phosphorylation status of ATG13 and ULK1, and the regulation of the ATG13-ULK1- RB1CC1 complex (By similarity).
ATG13 autophagy related 13 homolog
, autophagy-related protein 13
, harbinger transposase derived 1
, hypothetical protein