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Cytoskeleton

Image: Kidney, Glomerulus: Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE), ABIN218554
The is a system of fibers- and filaments located in the cytoplasm. Its functions are the transport of cellular structures, like for example mitochondria and vesicles, the anchoring of cell-organelles, and the maintenance of the cell shape and structure. The eukaryotic consists of three main components, namely filaments, microtubules, and the intermediary filaments. Furthermore, there are a large number of proteins bound to these main components that fulfill various and diverse functions.

filaments consist of the polymerized protein actin and are organized in a fibre-like double-helix structure with a diameter of approximately seven nanometers. They play an important role in stabilizing and altering the cell geometry and in the transport of vesicles. By binding to phalloidin, a substance from the group of pallotoxins, they can be labeled and detected by fluorescence microscopy. Microtubuli are dynamic and hollow cylinders of 25 nanometers diameter, which consist of polymers made up by tubulin subunits.

With their motorproteins dynesin and they allow intracellular transport over long distances and support the fixation of cell organelles. The intermediary filaments have structuring functions for the plasma membrane and the nucleus. There are six subtypes of the main components, namely sour and basic ceratin, desmins (, , , ), (, and ), and the (, , , NF-A, ). Their diameter is intermediate between that of filamens and microtubli.

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The consist of the polymerized protein and have a filamentous, double-helical structure with a diameter of approximately seven nanometers. They play an essential role in stabilizing or modifying cell geometry and vesicle transport. Through specific binding to phalloidin, a substance of the phallotoxin group, they can be labeled and detected by fluorescence microscopy. The microtubules are dynamic polymers consisting of tubulin subunits, which form a hollow cylinder with a diameter of approximately 25 nanometers.

Through their motor proteins dynesin and , they allow cells to perform intracellular transport processes over long distances. They also support the fixation of cell organelles. The intermediate filaments fulfill mostly structuring functions for the plasma membrane and the nucleus. We distinguish six subtypes of these main components. Acidic and basic keratin, desmin (, , , ), (, and ) and den (, , , NF-A, ). Their diameter is between that of the and the microtubules.

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