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Synonyms: APC1,APC1 protein,Cachectin,DIF,Differentiation inducing factor,Macrophage cytotoxic factor,Tnf,TNF superfamily,member 2,TNF,macrophage derived,TNF,monocyte derived,TNF-a,TNF-alpha,TNFA,TNFA,TNFSF2,Tumor necrosis factor alpha,Tumor necrosis factor,Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2,Tumor Necrosis Factor,Membrane Form,Tumor necrosis factor,soluble form
Background: This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine.