Histone H3 Antibodies

Epigenetics is the study of heritable cellular, and physiological traits by factors other than DNA sequence. Examples are simple chemical modifications, like methylation and acetylation to DNA and interacting partners. Since the basic structure of the respective nucleobase is retained, DNA methylation is not a genetic mutation but a modification. These changes are however they play a role in controlling how, where, and when certain genes are expressed.

Antibodies against Histone 3 Modifications

Position Unmodified Methylation Di-Methylation Tri-Methylation Acetylation
Arginin 2 Arg2 H3R2m1 H3R2m2 - -
Arginin 8 - H3R8m1 H3R8m2 - -
Arginin 17 Arg17 H3R17m1 H3R17m2 - -
Arginin 26 - H3R26m1 H3R26m2 - -
Lysine 4 Lys4 H3K4m1 - H3K4m3 H3K4ac
Lysine 9 Lys9 H3K9m1 - H3K9m3 H3K9ac
Lysine 14 Lys14 H3K14m1 H3K14m2 H3K14m3 H3K14ac
Lysine 18 Lys18 H3K18m1 H3K18m2 H3K18m3 H3K18ac
Lysine 23 Lys23 H3K23m1 H3K23m2 H3K23m3 H3K23ac
Lysine 27 Lys27 H3K27m1 H3K27m2 H3K27m3 H3K27ac
Lysine 36 - H3K36m1 H3K36m2 H3K36m3 H3K36ac
Lysine 37 Lys37 H3K37m1 - H3K37m3 H3K37ac
Lysine 56 - H3K56m1 - H3K56m3 H3K56ac
Lysine 64 - - - H3K64m3 -
Lysine 79 Lys79 H3K79m1 - H3K79m3 H3K79ac
Lysine 122 - H3K122m1 - - -

Histone H3K27m3 - shutting down Transcription

H3K27m3 is a deeply studied target of epigenetic researchers looking for inactive genes. Unlike other histone methylations, H3K27m3 has only one known methyltransferase: EZH2. EZH2 is responsible for the repression many genes involved in development and cell differentiation. Therefore H3K27m3 is critical for the repression of developmental genes acting in opposition to H3K4m3. When H3K27 is trimethylated, it is tightly associated with inactive gene promoters.

The mono- and di-methylation states are less studied; however, H3K27m2 shows a similar distribution to H3K27, while H3K27m1 is associated with active promoters. H3K27 can also be target of acetylation. Lysine residues can only be methylated or acetylated, in comparison the acetylation leads to opposite effects - with active transcription and antagonism of H3K27m3 regulated genes.

Several approaches are viable to study histones, including chromatin immunoprecipitation (together with its large-scale variants ChIP-on-chip and ChIP-Seq), fluorescent in situ hybridization or bisulfite sequencing. Recently cleavage under targets and release using nuclease (CUT&RUN) gained more and more traction as a consequent improvement for ChIP based methods.

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Note: Discover all Epigenetic Antibodies against Histone H3 Modifications! Antibodies against Histone H3 Acetylations and Methylations on Lysine and Arginine.