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PTK2 (show PTK2 Proteins) inhibition-induced sustained levels of ATG3 were able to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents.
Our data demonstrate that HOTAIR promotes the activation of autophagy in HCC (show FAM126A Proteins) cells by upregulating the expression of the autophagy-related genes ATG3 and ATG7 (show ATG7 Proteins).
ATG3 upregulation contributes to autophagy induced by the detachment of intestinal epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix, but promotes autophagy-independent apoptosis of the attached cells
Hidden Markov models were used to detect protein homology among the flexible regions of Atg3 homologs and importance of conserved regions evaluated by performing affinity capture experiments with human Atg3 deletion constructs; binding studies and competition experiments demonstrate that overlapping sites in the Atg3FR are important for E3 binding and E1 binding.
The region of human ATG3 that interacts with ATG7 (show ATG7 Proteins) is precisely identified using nuclear magnetic resonance.
ATG3 gene and its gene family may play an important role in transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome.
Lipidation of the LC3 (show MAP1LC3A Proteins)/GABARAP (show GABARAP Proteins) family of autophagy proteins relies on a membrane-curvature-sensing domain in Atg3.
13 residues of the ATG3 fragment form a short beta-strand followed by an alpha-helix on a surface area that is an exclusive binding site for ATG12.
caspase-8 (show CASP8 Proteins) overexpression led to Atg3 degradation and this event depended on caspase-8 (show CASP8 Proteins) enzymatic activity
These results unveil a role for ATG12-ATG3 in mitochondrial homeostasis and implicate the ATG12 conjugation system in cellular functions distinct from the early steps of autophagosome formation.
These findings highlight a critical role of ATG3-dependent autophagy for mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in both pluripotency acquirement and maintenance.
miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-495 targets ATG3 and regulates its protein levels under starvation conditions. miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-495 also inhibits starvation-induced autophagy by decreasing the number of autophagosomes.
ATG12 (show ATG12 Proteins)-ATG3 interacts with Alix (show PDCD6IP Proteins) to promote basal autophagic flux and late endosome function.
Atg3 expression, similar to Atg5 expression, is required for Immunity Related GTPases and Guanylate binding proteins to dock to pathogen-containing vacuoles.
Vaccinia virus actively disrupts the cellular autophagy through a novel molecular mechanism that is associated with aberrant LC3 (show MAP1LC3A Proteins) lipidation and a direct conjugation between ATG12 (show ATG12 Proteins) and ATG3.
The model and biochemical data provide a rationale for Atg7 (show ATG7 Proteins) dimerization: Atg8 (show MAP1LC3B Proteins) is transferred in trans from the catalytic cysteine of one Atg7 (show ATG7 Proteins) protomer to Atg3 bound to the N-terminal domain of the opposite Atg7 (show ATG7 Proteins) protomer within the homodimer.
Autophagy is a process of bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components by the lysosome or vacuole. Human ATG3 displays the same enzymatic characteristics in vitro as yeast Apg3, a protein-conjugating enzyme essential for autophagy (Tanida et al., 2002
, autophagy-related protein 3
, ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG3
, ATG3 autophagy related 3 homolog
, autophagy-related 3
, preconditioning-inducible gene 1 protein
, potential E2-like lipid conjugating enzyme Atg3