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In a replication study of the association between the prolactin receptor gene intron C/T polymorphism (rs37389) and recurrent miscarriage, no association was found.
Low PRLR expression is associated with Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
These results illustrate promising antitumor activity against PRLR-positive breast cancer xenografts and support the evaluation of anti-PRLR antibody-drug conjugate as potential therapeutic agents in breast cancer.
Prl receptor is expressed at different levels in the majority of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. Prolactin stimulation resulted in increased STAT5 phosphorylation and increased cellular invasion.
PRLRI146L and PRLRI176V variants are not associated with breast cancer or multiple breast fibroadenomas risk.
This study identified 4 PRLR variations (p.Ile76Val, p.Ile146Leu, p.Glu108Lys and p.Glu554Gln) in 16 Sporadic Prolactinoma in Humans.
results highlight PRLR as an independent predictor of favorable prognosis in human breast cancer
Two markers for the PRL peptide gene and three markers for the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene were genotyped.
The prolactin receptor is constitutively expressed on regulatory T and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, and this expression is higher than in healthy individuals.
There is a possible role for PRLR in the progression of cervical cancer.
PRL-PRLR can escalate the impact of breast cancer on bone metastasis and the presence of PRLR in the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer bone metastasis has the potential to modulate the microenvironment to induce lytic osteoclast formation.
Study shows that position 146 plays a central role in directing intrinsic properties of the PRLR, including extracellular domain folding, PRL-responsiveness, and ligand-independent activity of the receptor.
Data suggest that (1) cell membrane/lipid bilayer binding of PRLR and (2) tyrosine phosphorylation of PRLR intracellular domain are independent.
long PRLR plays an important role in breast cancer metastasis.
a residue quartet in the extracellular membrane proximal domain of the homodimeric cytokine receptor prolactin receptor is a key regulator of intracellular signaling discrimination
PRL induced transient signaling pathways in neurons and modulated ion channels. [review]
exposure to prolactin increases TNF-alpha release from CD14(+) monocytes of rheumatoid arthritis patients, which can be abolished by PRLR gene silencing or treating with MAPK inhibitor.
High MFAB expression is associated with testicular germ cell tumor and glioblastomas.
Negative/low expression is associated with poorly differentiated and larger breast tumors in Poland
Major changes in prolactin receptor conformation and dimerization affinity are triggered by single mutations in critical regions of D1.
The presence and localization of prolactin receptor are consistent with expression data reported for other species, and the presence of PIP and prolactin in seminal fluid is consistent with data generated in humans.
This study revealed for the first time that the PRLR gene is a promising candidate gene that affects growth traits in cattle.
Multiple internalization motifs differentially used by this protein's isoforms mediate similar endocytic pathways.
determination of the effects of exposure to different lengths of daylight during the dry period on circulating PRL and PRL receptor mRNA expression in lymphocytes and mammary tissue during the transition to lactation
Alternative splicing of transcripts from nine first exons of the porcine PRLR (pPRLR) gene are differentially expressed in various tissues.
The effects of prolactin receptor and beta-casein genotype on the nutritive value of sow milk are reported.
PRLR was identified as down-regulated in the oviduct of immotile short tail sperm (ISTS) homozygous sows. The methylation pattern of the PRLR gene region appeared unaffected.
Associations between genotypes of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene and swine reproductive, growth and meat traits were determined.
A prolactin receptor short mRNA sequence that is encoded by exon 11 within the pPRLR gene is expressed most abundantly in several tissues known to be prolactin targets in pigs. The pPRLR-SF acts as a dominant negative to the pPRLR-LF.
Results showed that the effects of FSHb, ESR, and PRLR genes were significant in the Tibet pig population, and the effective genotypes of the three genes for reproductive traits were BB, BB, and AA, respectively.
found associations between PRLR genotype and ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, percentage of live sperm, and number of live sperm in the ejaculate
A report of greater than expected levels of amino acid variability within the intracellular domain of the porcine PRLR, which have been associated with differences in ovulation in sows and the preweaning survivability of piglets is presented.
Data showed that sows with genotype AB in PRLR gene had a significantly higher frequency of lateral-lying-to- other-posture trait and percentage of sow-terminated nursing trait than sows with the AA and BB genotypes.
The results showed that the polymorphic sites of both PRLR and RBP4 genes are closely related to litter size traits.
Specific combinations of E(2), P, and PRL differentially regulate pPRLR-LF expression in the endometrium and mammary glands.
The association of 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms with stallion fertility is reported.
Study presents the causal mutation for feathering rate in turkey that causes a partial C-terminal loss of the prolactin receptor, and this truncated PRLR protein is strikingly similar to the protein encoded by the slow feathering K allele in chicken.
both species had very similar patterns of PRL release and expression of PRLR mRNA, and no major differences were observed between turkey or chicken embryos
Study shows prolactin receptors in Rip-cre cells, but not in AgRP neurones, are involved in energy homeostasis. Results indicate that Rip-Cre neurones in the arcuate nucleus are responsive to prolactin and may play a role in the orexigenic effects of prolactin, whereas prolactin does not directly affect Agrp neurones.
The estrogen-responsive pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), through specific PRL receptor (PRLR), down-regulates hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation.
Truncating mutations of Prlr promote tumor growth in a model of human ERalpha+ breast cancer.
This study demonstrated that there are at least two functional subpopulations of dopamine neurons in the arcuate nucleus, with approximately 50% of these neurons expressing GABA.
MafB deletion in maternal beta-cells also produced GDM, with inadequate beta-cell expansion accompanied by failure to induce PRLR-dependent target genes regulating beta-cell proliferation. These results unveil molecular roles for PRLR signaling in orchestrating the physiologic expansion of maternal beta-cells during pregnancy.
Of the four placenta-specific, Prl-related hormones that have been shown to interact with the Prlr, their gene expression localizes to different endocrine cell types
Prolactin transport into mouse brain is independent of prolactin receptor.
Prolactin receptor was upregulated in proximal kidney tubule cells of mice with cardiac disease.
This study showed in knockout mice showed no effect of PRL and PRL-R gene ablation on heat and cold hyperalgesia in male mice, while heat hyperlgesia were reduced 3-72 h post-surgery in female PRL and PRL-R knockout mice
The in utero environment of the Prlr(+/-) mother confers long-term changes in the pancreatic islets of her offspring such that when the offspring themselves became pregnant, they cannot adapt to the increased insulin demands of their own pregnancy.
results provide direct genetic evidence that PRLR affects energy balance and metabolic adaptation in rodents via effects on brown adipose tissue differentiation and function
Germline knockout of prolactin or its receptor has failed to reveal a key role for prolactin signaling in mouse prostate physiology.
Data suggest that PRL stimulates the Prlr gene expression through the transcriptional activation of mE1(4) first exon, leading to increases in the long- and short-form variants of Prlr mRNA in the murine choroid plexus.
These results demonstrate important contextual aspects of PRL-PRLR interactions with implications for the analysis of the role of PRL in breast cancer.
Data suggest that prolactin is involved in regulation of prolactin receptor expression and maintenance of physiological cell renewal in anterior pituitary. Prolactin/prolactin receptor signaling may be involved in regulation of pituitary gland size.
deactivation of MAPK by PRL/PRL-RS contributes to the severe ovarian defect in PRLR(-/-)RS mice and demonstrate the novel association of PRL-RS with DUPD1 and a role for this phosphatase in MAPK deactivation
Suggest that replacement of estrogen and progestin may not increase the mRNA of endometrial PRL receptor in metoclopromide-induced hyperprolactinemia in rats after castration.
Results clearly indicate that PRL does signal through PRL-RS in the decidua as well as the ovary, independently of PRL-RL, and activates/represses transcription factors Pax5, Pax6 and Runx1 in a tissue specific manner.
Results provide a detailed mapping of the prolactin-responsive neurons in the female mouse forebrain by describing the distribution of prolactin receptor mRNA.
Pancreatic islets of PRLR-deficient mice were smaller, insulin mRNA levels were lower, glucose levels after an ip glucose load were higher
PRL receptor signaling exerts robust effects on lactotroph development and plays a permissive role in lactotroph osmo-responsiveness
This gene encodes a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone, prolactin, and belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Prolactin-dependent signaling occurs as the result of ligand-induced dimerization of the prolactin receptor. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different membrane-bound and soluble isoforms have been described for this gene, which may function to modulate the endocrine and autocrine effects of prolactin in normal tissue and cancer.
, hPRL receptor
, secreted prolactin binding protein
, prolactin receptor long form
, equates to base 1078-1204 of D13154
, prolactin receptor b
, prolactin receptor
, prolactin receptor-like
, lactogen receptor
, prolactin receptor related sequence 1