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PACAP (show MZB1 Proteins) stimulates secretoneurin (show SCG2 Proteins) release and secretogranin II (show SCG2 Proteins) gene transcription in bovine adrenochromaffin cells
High level of co-expression of PACAP with VIP (show Vip Proteins), SP and CGRP (show CALCA Proteins) in the distal ganglia of the vagus sensory perikarya directly implicates studied peptides in their functional interaction during nociceptive vagal transduction.
Some abnormalities of the PACAP system are evident in the brains of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome infants.
Study found that interictal serum PACAP levels are not increased (or decreased) in a large series of chronic migraine women when compared to matched controls without a headache history
Study found a protective effect of PACAP-38 on oxidative stress damage in zebrafish hair cells, suggesting PACAP-38 ability to prevent hair cells from apoptosis. PACAP-38 treatment decreased the cleaved caspase-3 (show CASP3 Proteins) level in the hair cells, but somewhat unexpectedly had no influence on p-38 MAPK (show MAPK1 Proteins) pathway. PACAP-38 treatment also rescued H2O2-induced reduction in movement.
An association was found in a common variant of the PACAP receptor in patients with cluster headache.
PACAP-38 is released in plasma during attacks of episodic cluster headache patients.
Hypermethylation of ADCYAP1 gene may be highly associated with the development of cervical cancer.
This review provides an overview of current knowledge regarding the neuroprotective effects, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential of PACAP in response to ischemic brain injuries
PACAP is involved in the pathogenesis of migraine rather than tension-type headache
PACAP38-PAC1 (show ADCYAP1R1 Proteins) signaling process initiates bone marrow-derived cells homing into the ischemic brain for reducing brain injury.
Results suggest that PACAP could protect SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells against toxicity induced by inflammatory mediators.
This study shown the model of depression in PACAP mutation mice.
PACAP/PAC1 (show ADCYAP1R1 Proteins) signaling is important for light regulated behavior, VIP (show Vip Proteins)/VPAC2 (show VIPR2 Proteins) signaling for stable clock function and both signaling pathways may play a role in shaping diurnality versus nocturnality.
Results suggests that PACAP regulates a bidirectional interaction between the adult neural progenitor cells and their niche: PACAP modifies extracellular matrix production and remodeling, in turn the extracellular matrix regulates progenitor cell adherence. PACAP may in this manner help restrict adult neural progenitors to the stem cell niche in vivo.
age-related changes were observed in the PACAP KO mice only. These alterations included horizontal and rod bipolar cell dendritic sprouting into the photoreceptor layer and decreased ganglion cell number. Also, Muller glial cells showed elevated GFAP (show GFAP Proteins) expression compared to the aging WT retinas.
Mice lacking endogenous PACAP have slower weight gain during the first weeks of development and slower neurobehavioral development.
Study investigated effects of chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) in non-injected, vehicle and imipramine-treated KO mice vs. wildtype (WT) counterparts and mapped the CVMS-related FosB (show FOSB Proteins) response in 18 brain areas; found that PACAP deficiency affects neuronal reactivity in a brain area-specific manner in stress centers
Backup mechanisms maintain PACAP/VIP (show Vip Proteins)-induced arterial vasodilation in PACAP-deficient mice.
PACAP/PAC1 (show ADCYAP1R1 Proteins) signaling has a role in light regulated food anticipatory activity
PACAP deficient mice exhibit attenuated acute restraint stress response and chronic restraint stress response.
not only homozygous but also heterozygous PACAP deficient mice are more vulnerable to kidney ischemia/reperfusion, further supporting the nephroprotective effects of the endogenous PACAP
The temporal and spatial expression pattern of the ghrh-pacap1 transcript suggests that thise hormones may modulate patterning during development.
expression of transcripts for PACAP (show VIPR2 Proteins) and its receptors by 0.5-6 hpf make both PACAP1 and PACAP2 candidates for factors that influence brain development
study reveals the distribution of immunoreactive GHRH (show GHRH Proteins)-like peptide in structures of the zebrafish brain; results suggest involvement of GHRH (show GHRH Proteins)-LP in both neuroendocrine and feeding-associated nervous circuits
This gene encodes a secreted proprotein that is further processed into multiple mature peptides. These peptides stimulate adenylate cyclase and increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, resulting in the transcriptional activation of target genes. The products of this gene are key mediators of neuroendocrine stress responses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
glucagon family neuropeptides
, growth hormone-releasing hormone
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide
, adenylate cyclase activating peptide, pituitary 1
, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor (Pacap)
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide, PACAP