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Study findings point out that PAR2 could play an essential role in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pathogenesis - even repeated short-term exposure to weakly acidic conditions lead to the upregulation of PAR2 and subsequent activation of the intense IL-8 (show IL8 Proteins) release in the esophageal mucosa and initiation of mucosal immune response in GERD.
PAR-2 is expressed basolaterally in airway cells, where it stimulates both intracellular Ca(2 (show CA2 Proteins)+) release and Ca(2 (show CA2 Proteins)+) influx, which activates low-level nitric oxide production, increases apical membrane Cl(-) permeability approximately 3-5-fold, and increases ciliary beating approximately 20-50%.
PAR2 signaling from endosomes underlies the persistent hyperexcitability of nociceptors that mediates chronic pain of irritable bowel syndrome.
PAR2 plays an important role in the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
PAR2 expression is crucial for TGF-beta1 (show TGFB1 Proteins)-induced ERK (show EPHB2 Proteins) activation and cell motility. Functional cooperation of PAR2 and TGF-beta1 (show TGFB1 Proteins) involves a physical interaction between PAR2 and ALK5 (show TGFBR1 Proteins).
Activation of PAR2 inhibits the expression of IL-10 (show IL10 Proteins) in B cells, which can be reversed by treating B cells with Bcl2L12 (show BCL2L12 Proteins) shRNA-carrying liposomes.
High Expressions of PAR2 is associated with cancer.
activation of PAR2 compromises the vascular endothelial barrier function by suppressing the expression of Ve-cadherin (show CDH5 Proteins).
plays a direct role in melanogenesis by increasing stem cell factor (show KITLG Proteins) secretion from keratinocytes
Neutrophil elastase (show ELANE Proteins) enhances IL-12p40 production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages via transactivation of the PAR-2/EGFR (show EGFR Proteins)/TLR4 (show TLR4 Proteins) signaling pathway
PAR2 activation in the prostate may contribute to the development of lower urinary tract dysfunction through proinflammatory as well as profibrotic pathways.
Our data show that PAR2 counterbalanced enhanced contractions to ET-1 (show EDN1 Proteins) in aortas from Tsk (show FBN1 Proteins) mice. PAR2 could represent a possible target for novel drugs in the treatment of vascular complications in fibrosis.
thrombin (show F2 Proteins) is increased in a mouse model of cancer cachexia in a partially interleukin-6 (show IL6 Proteins) dependent manner
Data show that activated protein C (show PROC Proteins) signals via protease activated receptors PAR2/PAR3 (show F2RL2 Proteins) to expand Treg cells, mitigating the disease in mice.
PAR2 plays an important and previously unrecognised anti-apoptotic role in T cell development
thrombin (show F2 Proteins) has a role in diet-induced obesity through fibrin-driven inflammation
PAR2 modulation was sufficient to induce islet cell transdifferentiation in the absence of beta-cells.
Our results are suggestive that PAR2 inhibition may play a role in the treatment of diseases with increased inflammatory responses in renal systems
PAR2/GSK3beta is a novel pathway that plays a critical role in the regulation of stem/progenitor cell survival and proliferation in normal colon crypts and colon cancer.
PAR1 and PAR2 regulate endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation and activity through G(12/13) and G(q), delineating the signaling pathways by which the proteases act on protease-activated receptors to modulate endothelial functions.
Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 (F2RL1) is a member of the large family of 7-transmembrane-region receptors that couple to guanosine-nucleotide-binding proteins. F2RL1 is also a member of the protease-activated receptor family. It is activated by trypsin, but not by thrombin. It is activated by proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular amino terminus. The new amino terminus functions as a tethered ligand and activates the receptor. The F2RL1 gene contains two exons and is widely expressed in human tissues. The predicted protein sequence is 83% identical to the mouse receptor sequence.
Proteinase-activated receptor 2
, G-protein coupled receptor 11
, coagulation factor II receptor-like 1
, protease-activated receptor 2
, proteinase-activated receptor 2
, thrombin receptor-like 1
, Protease-activated receptor-2
, proteinase-activated receptor-2
, Proteinase-activated receptor-2 G protein-coupled receptor 11
, Proteinase-activated receptor-2, G protein-coupled receptor 11