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Study found that high IL-34 levels in synovial fluid were significantly associated with the radiographic and symptomatic severity of knee osteoarthritis.
Data showed that single expression of M-CSF or IL-34 can be observed in lung cancer tissues and correlated with poor survival. Additionally, their high co-expression correlates with disease stages and poor survival. Thus, evaluating the expression of both M-CSF and IL-34 may help to estimate disease progression and malignant degree in lung cancer patients.
this study shows that IL-34 regulates IL-6 and IL-8 production in human lung fibroblasts via MAPK, PI3K-Akt, JAK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways
Study indicates that IL-34 can be an indicator of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
In conclusion, elevated serum IL-34 levels were demonstrated to be independently associated with renal insufficiency and coronary artery disease in patients with chronic heart failure, regardless of the systolic function.
Data indicate that the interleukin 34 (IL-34) is a feasible diagnostic marker of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.
Findings uncover a novel function for IKKbeta/mHTTx1 interactions in regulating IL-34 production, and implicate a role for IL-34 in non-cell-autonomous, microglial-dependent neurodegeneration in HD.
The IL-34/STAT3/miR-21 pathway is crucial for the survival of synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis
Data show that both serum interleukin-34 (IL-34) and IL-34 mRNA in mononuclear leukocytes (PBMCs) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients was significantly decreased compared to the healthy controls.
pathogenic role for IL34 in mediating immunosuppression and chemoresistance and identify it as a tractable target for anticancer therapy.
The current study aimed to assess the IL-34 expression in response to two members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family, TGF-beta1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, in synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis patients.
The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis has shown that IL-34 has more discriminatory power than C-reactive protein (CRP) for the risk of diabetic complications. The cut-off value for IL-34 was established as 91.2 pg/mL. The gist of our research was identification of IL-34 as an additional potential inflammatory biomarker for the prediction of the risk of vascular diabetic complications.
miR-28-5p-IL-34-macrophage feedback loop modulates hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis
findings demonstrated that M-CSF binds to IL-34; molecular docking studies predicted the formation of a heteromeric M-CSF/IL-34 cytokine
These results suggest that IL-34, a novel osteoclastogenic cytokine, plays a role in rheumatoid arthritis-associated joint damage and is a potential biomarker for predicting subsequent radiographic progression in patients with RA.
IL-34 is expressed by human FOXP3+CD45RCloCD8+ and CD4+ Tregs and markedly inhibited alloreactive immune responses.
This paper provides evidence of alternative binding of IL-34 to chondroitin sulphates and syndecan-1 at the cell surface that modulates M-CSFR activation.
In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that IL-34 expression is regulated by TNF-a and IL-1b and that its overexpression is associated with an increase in osteosarcoma growth and metastasis.
the expression pattern of IL-34 in ileum and colon and suggest IL-34 as a new modulator of inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease
IL-34 is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel disease and suggest a role for this cytokine in sustaining the inflammatory responses in this disease
study concludes that Langerhans cells require IL-34 when residing in fully differentiated and anatomically intact skin epidermis, but rely on neutrophil-derived CSF1 during inflammation
constitutive IL-34 expressed by skin keratinocytes might suppress resident macrophage responses to C. albicans colonisation by maintaining low levels TLR2 and Dectin-1 expression by macrophages.
IL-34 protected blood-brain barrier integrity by restored expression levels of tight junction proteins, which were downregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
IL-34-dependent, Mo-mediated, CSF-1 nonredundant mechanisms promote persistent ischemia-incited AKI that worsens subsequent CKD.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces IL-34 expression via NF-kappaB in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.
These findings suggest that TGF-beta produced by IL-34-treated microglia is a negative regulator of microglial proliferation and enhances the neuroprotective property of microglia.
Differentiated signaling between IL-34 and CSF-1 is likely achieved by the relative thermodynamic independence of IL-34 versus negative cooperativity of CSF-1 at the CSF-1 receptor recognition sites.
IL-34 as a nonredundant cytokine for the development of Langerhans cells during embryogenesis as well as for their homeostasis in the adult skin.
IL-34 specifically directs the differentiation of myeloid cells in the skin epidermis and central nervous system.
Postnatal neocortical expression showed that CSF-1 was expressed in layer VI, whereas IL-34 was expressed in the meninges and layers II-V. The broader expression of IL-34 is consistent with its previously implicated role in microglial development.
The function of Interleukin-34 (IL-34), a newly discovered cytokine, on microglia was examined.
This study was to explore the biological function, specifically osteoclastogenesis and bone metabolism, of il-34.
The different spatiotemporal expression of IL-34 and CSF-1 allows for complementary activation of the CSF-1R in developing and adult tissues.
Interleukin-34 is a cytokine that promotes the differentiation and viability of monocytes and macrophages through the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R\; MIM 164770) (Lin et al., 2008