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Detection of proinsulin antibodies in blood precedes detection of classical islet antibodies in children at risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1.
insulin and leptin (show LEP Proteins) receptors have positive effects on signaling, contributing to high signaling levels in Gestational diabetes placenta.
analysis of th complex role of insulin in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism [review and meta-analysis]
Elevated 2-hour intact proinsulin levels during OGTT were predictive for later type 2 diabetes development.
Data suggest that resveratrol acts on differentiating preadipocytes by inhibiting insulin signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis, and lipogenesis.
Metformin resulted in a significant reduction of IGF-1 (show IGF1 Proteins), IGF-1 (show IGF1 Proteins): IGFBP-3 (show IGFBP3 Proteins) molar ratio, insulin, FBG and HOMA-IR. On the other hand, metformin caused a significant increase of IGFBP-3 (show IGFBP3 Proteins).
Data suggest that rate of duodenal glucose delivery (or gastric emptying) has major impact on insulin secretion and, thereby, oral disposition index/insulin resistance.
Studies indicate key feedback loops involved in the cross-talk among the insulin-proto-oncogene (show RAB1A Proteins) protein c-akt (AKT (show AKT1 Proteins)) and MAPK/ERK (show MAPK1 Proteins) signaling pathways.
O-GlcNAcylation of PTP1B (show PTPN1 Proteins) can influence insulin signal transduction by modulating its own phosphatase activity, which participates in the process of hepatic insulin resistance.
The regulated sorting of ICA512 (show PTPRN Proteins) to secretory granules in INS-1 (show FOXM1 Proteins) cells was impaired by deletion of RESP18HD. ICA512 (show PTPRN Proteins)-RESP18HD binds with high-affinity to insulin and proinsulin.
PTPLAD1 (show PTPLAD1 Proteins) and AMPK (show PRKAA1 Proteins) are rapidly compartmentalized within the plasma membrane (PM) and Golgi/endosome fractions after insulin stimulation and that ATIC (show ATIC Proteins) later accumulates in the Golgi/endosome fraction.
Pdx-1 (show PDX1 Proteins), MafA (show MAFA Proteins) and NeuroD1 (show NEUROD1 Proteins) bind to the A, C and E elements in the insulin promoter and regulate the transcriptional activity of the insulin promoter.
The interplay of the adiponectin (show ADIPOQ Proteins) system, TNFalpha (show TNF Proteins) and insulin at a transcriptional level and, their effects on the adipogenic transcription factor PPARgamma (show PPARG Proteins), as well as on the activation of main insulin signaling pathways, is reported.
Thermodynamics of insulin unfolding have been quantified by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal unfolding measurements to determine the extent and nature of their stabilization of the insulin hexamer.
Exposing the hydrophobic core of insulin can induce the increase of amyloidogenicity and formation of higher-order polymerized fibrils, which is less toxic to membranes.
Data suggest that a mutation in INS (C94Y) results a transgenic disease model for the investigation of permanent neonatal diabetes.
The results show that modulation of plasma insulin levels by dietary carbohydrates seems possible in anabolic sows, but IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) levels are less easily modified.
insulin increased GCLc (show GCLC Proteins) promoter activity, which required a prerequisite increase or decrease in medium glucose
SOCS3 (show SOCS3 Proteins) is an important negative regulator of insulin signaling in porcine adipocytes.
Plasma concentrations of insulin in pigs fed once per day were lower before feeding than after the meal. Plasma concentrations of insulin in ad libitum fed pigs exhibited random fluctuations.
Differences between human and bovine insulin kinetics under shear
increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction
Hormonal gene expression involved in residual feed intake in dairy cows may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin (show LEP Proteins)-NPY (show NPY Proteins) and insulin signaling pathways.
Raman spectra of amino acids by Density Functional Theory method have been calculated. Experimental Raman spectra of insulin has been done. The simulated Raman spectrum of insulin is obtained from amino acid spectrum.
Contains Binding kinetics for insulin binding
Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T6 bovine insulin complexed with Ni(2 (show VMP1 Proteins)+) and Cu(2+) were solved to 1.50 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively.
The present study examined the effect of insulin-mediated activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (show FRAP1 Proteins) complex 1 (MTORC1) signaling network on the proliferation of primary culture of theca-interstitial (T-I) cells.
In-situ spectroscopic investigation of ultrasonic assisted unfolding and aggregation of insulin.
Insulin-induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase~mammalian target of rapamycin (show FRAP1 Proteins) pathway up-regulates tau protein via acceleration of protein synthesis in adrenal chromaffin cells, promoting neurite-like process outgrowth.
insulin supports early initiation of the mesodermal factor Brachyury (show TBX1 Proteins) and the signalling molecules Wnt3a (show WNT3A Proteins) and Wnt4 (show WNT4 Proteins) as well as the progression of mesoderm formation
Data show that type 1 diabetic blastocyst did not express insulin mRNA.
Wnt3a increased the expression of NeuroD1 and Ins2 in the hypothalamus.
have characterized the distinctive sex-specific phenotypes exhibited by the ApoE(-/-):Ins2(+/Akita) mouse model and present evidence for the action of sex hormones on pancreatic beta-cell function
Data indicate that Src homology-2 domain containing protein B (SHB) deficiency causes a chronic increase in beta-cell focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity that perturbs the normal insulin secretory characteristics of beta-cells.
Mouse Ins2 and Ins1 promoters were transiently activated in mouse fetal hepatocytes of embryonic days 13.5 and 16.5, respectively.
Data indicate that insulin/incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) does not prevent but induces diabetes in RIP-CD80GP transgenic mice.
RORalpha is a transcriptional activator of insulin.
Mice deficient in coinhibitory PD-L1 (show CD274 Proteins) or PD-1 (show PDCD1 Proteins) molecules (PD-L1 (show CD274 Proteins)(-/-) and PD-1 (show PDCD1 Proteins)(-/-) mice), were used to study induction of preproinsulin (ppins)-specific CD8 (show CD8A Proteins) T-cell responses and experimental autoimmune diabetes.
Data suggest that CD34 (show CD34 Proteins) may be a specific marker for functionality, with some specificity for insulin.
Akita mouse has a mutation in Ins2 and is a model of the effects of maternal and paternal hyperglycemia in wildtype offspring
These findings suggest that GHRL (show GHRL Proteins) regulates INS synthesis by mediating its action on growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (show GHSR Proteins) in the central nervous system and partly involved in carbohydrate-glycogen (show GYS2 Proteins) metabolism.
Our results indicate that in adult tilapia insulin expression is not restricted to the endocrine pancreatic cells, but also occurs in endocrine cells of the pituitary gland and in the neuronal cells of the brain.
After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.