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PGC-1alpha gene expression is down-regulated by Akt (show AKT1 Proteins)- mediated phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 (show FOXO1 Proteins) in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle
These data support a role for islet NGF (show NGFB Proteins) in fine-tuning insulin secretion.
Data suggest early peaks in glucagon-like peptide-1 (show GCG Proteins) and glucagon (show GCG Proteins) secretion/blood level together trigger exaggerated insulinotropic response (high insulin secretion/level) to eating and consequent hypoglycaemia in patients with postprandial hypoglycaemia as a postoperative complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes; this retrospective cohort study was conducted in London.
Studies on the susceptibility to aggregation of truncated analogs of insulin amyloidogenic core show three groups of peptides. Truncation of A13 (show UGT1A10 Proteins)-A419 fragment shows that fibrous structures are formed by all peptides bearing (13)H-LeuTyr-OH(14). Propensity to aggregation was found for (16)H-TyrLeu-OH(17) B12 (show NDUFB3 Proteins)-B17 (show NDUFB6 Proteins) fragment.
Insulin and PI3K (show PIK3CA Proteins)/AKT (show AKT1 Proteins) signaling are essential for RNase 7 (show RNASE7 Proteins) expression and increased infection risks in diabetic patients may be secondary to suppressed RNase 7 (show RNASE7 Proteins) production.
A common variant, i.e., single nucleotide polymorphism rs6741949, in the DPP4 (show DPP4 Proteins) gene interacts with body adiposity and negatively affects glucose-stimulated GLP-1 (show GCG Proteins) levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance.
Insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells increases after adrenalectomy for aldosterone-producing adenomas; adrenalectomy in these patients prevents primary aldosteronism; such data suggest that aldosterone excess inhibits insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells. This retrospective study was conducted in Japan.
Results indicate that insulin scores, but not glycemic scores, were positively associated with colorectal cancer (CRC (show CALR Proteins)) mortality.
Data suggest that higher dietary intake of glucose, but not of fructose or of sucrose, is associated with insulin resistance; no associations were observed for high dietary intakes of glucose, fructose, or sucrose with loss of function of pancreatic beta-cells in secretion of insulin. This study was conducted in the Netherlands among patients newly diagnosed with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.
Higher maternal total n-3 PUFAs and specifically DHA levels during pregnancy are associated with higher childhood total-cholesterol, HDL (show HSD11B1 Proteins)-cholesterol and insulin levels.
Study used well-tempered bias exchange metadynamics simulations to determine the equilibrium ensembles of an insulin molecule under amyloidogenic conditions of low pH and high temperature. The folded state of a single insulin molecule was shown to be the most stable, longest-lived state even under amyloidogenic conditions.
The findings are consistent with previous studies that indicate a link between Na,K-ATPase (show ATP1A1 Proteins) activity and SFK signaling.
PTPLAD1 (show PTPLAD1 Proteins) and AMPK (show PRKAA1 Proteins) are rapidly compartmentalized within the plasma membrane (PM) and Golgi/endosome fractions after insulin stimulation and that ATIC (show ATIC Proteins) later accumulates in the Golgi/endosome fraction.
Pdx-1 (show PDX1 Proteins), MafA (show MAFA Proteins) and NeuroD1 (show NEUROD1 Proteins) bind to the A, C and E elements in the insulin promoter and regulate the transcriptional activity of the insulin promoter.
The interplay of the adiponectin system, TNFalpha (show TNF Proteins) and insulin at a transcriptional level and, their effects on the adipogenic transcription factor PPARgamma (show PPARG Proteins), as well as on the activation of main insulin signaling pathways, is reported.
Thermodynamics of insulin unfolding have been quantified by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal unfolding measurements to determine the extent and nature of their stabilization of the insulin hexamer.
Exposing the hydrophobic core of insulin can induce the increase of amyloidogenicity and formation of higher-order polymerized fibrils, which is less toxic to membranes.
Data suggest that a mutation in INS (C94Y) results a transgenic disease model for the investigation of permanent neonatal diabetes.
The results show that modulation of plasma insulin levels by dietary carbohydrates seems possible in anabolic sows, but IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) levels are less easily modified.
insulin increased GCLc (show GCLC Proteins) promoter activity, which required a prerequisite increase or decrease in medium glucose
Insulin signaling role in skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in in transition and postpartum period
Differences between human and bovine insulin kinetics under shear
increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction
Hormonal gene expression involved in residual feed intake in dairy cows may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin (show LEP Proteins)-NPY (show NPY Proteins) and insulin signaling pathways.
Raman spectra of amino acids by Density Functional Theory method have been calculated. Experimental Raman spectra of insulin has been done. The simulated Raman spectrum of insulin is obtained from amino acid spectrum.
Contains Binding kinetics for insulin binding
Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T6 bovine insulin complexed with Ni(2 (show VMP1 Proteins)+) and Cu(2+) were solved to 1.50 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively.
The present study examined the effect of insulin-mediated activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (show FRAP1 Proteins) complex 1 (MTORC1) signaling network on the proliferation of primary culture of theca-interstitial (T-I) cells.
In-situ spectroscopic investigation of ultrasonic assisted unfolding and aggregation of insulin.
insulin supports early initiation of the mesodermal factor Brachyury (show TBX1 Proteins) and the signalling molecules Wnt3a (show WNT3A Proteins) and Wnt4 (show WNT4 Proteins) as well as the progression of mesoderm formation
Data show that type 1 diabetic blastocyst did not express insulin mRNA.
These results suggest that prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia in the Ins2(Akita+/-) mice leads to progressive testicular disruption mediated by testicular activin activity, rather than hormonal dysregulation.
report that EndMTs occur in the diabetic endothelium of Ins2Akita/wt mouse, and show that induction of sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2 (show SOX2 Proteins)) is a mediator of excess BMP signaling that results in activation of EndMTs and increased vascular calcification
Transplantation of transduced hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expressing proinsulin II prevents diabetes development.
Wnt3a increased the expression of NeuroD1 and Ins2 in the hypothalamus.
Data suggest that resveratrol acts on differentiating preadipocytes by inhibiting insulin signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis, and lipogenesis.
have characterized the distinctive sex-specific phenotypes exhibited by the ApoE(-/-):Ins2(+/Akita) mouse model and present evidence for the action of sex hormones on pancreatic beta-cell function
Data indicate that Src homology-2 domain containing protein B (SHB) deficiency causes a chronic increase in beta-cell focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity that perturbs the normal insulin secretory characteristics of beta-cells.
Mouse Ins2 and Ins1 promoters were transiently activated in mouse fetal hepatocytes of embryonic days 13.5 and 16.5, respectively.
Data indicate that insulin/incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) does not prevent but induces diabetes in RIP-CD80GP transgenic mice.
RORalpha is a transcriptional activator of insulin.
Temporal and spatial expression of two insulin genes (insa and insab) during early developmental stages.
These findings suggest that GHRL (show GHRL Proteins) regulates INS synthesis by mediating its action on growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (show GHSR Proteins) in the central nervous system and partly involved in carbohydrate-glycogen (show GYS2 Proteins) metabolism.
Our results indicate that in adult tilapia insulin expression is not restricted to the endocrine pancreatic cells, but also occurs in endocrine cells of the pituitary gland and in the neuronal cells of the brain.
After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.