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The results of transmission electron microscopy, structural analyses, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay show that the fibrils formed under conditions more closely resembling physiological conditions have different properties from the fibrils described to date. The novel insulin fibrils show strong cytotoxicity under physiological pH.
A specific covalently linked dimeric species of insulin high molecular weight products (HMWPs), formed during prolonged incubation of a neutral pharmaceutical formulation of human insulin, were characterized in terms of tertiary structure, self-association, biological activity, and fibrillation properties. The dimer was formed by a covalent link between A21Asn and B29Lys.
Taken together, these results demonstrate that insulin and TGF-beta3 (show TGFB3 Proteins) present antagonistic effects during the chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells.
Sulfatide is known to stabilize insulin crystals, and we demonstrate here that in beta cells sulfatide is likely coating insulin crystals. However, there is no evidence for sulfatide to be built into the crystal lattice.
The conserved tyrosine B26 contribute to the function and stability of human insulin.
Insulin increases the expression of TRPC6 (show TRPC6 Proteins) channels in podocytes by activation of the calcineurin (show PPP3CA Proteins)-dependent pathway.
Detection of proinsulin antibodies in blood precedes detection of classical islet antibodies in children at risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1.
insulin and leptin (show LEP Proteins) receptors have positive effects on signaling, contributing to high signaling levels in Gestational diabetes placenta.
analysis of th complex role of insulin in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism [review and meta-analysis]
Elevated 2-hour intact proinsulin levels during OGTT were predictive for later type 2 diabetes development.
PTPLAD1 (show PTPLAD1 Proteins) and AMPK (show PRKAA1 Proteins) are rapidly compartmentalized within the plasma membrane (PM) and Golgi/endosome fractions after insulin stimulation and that ATIC (show ATIC Proteins) later accumulates in the Golgi/endosome fraction.
Pdx-1 (show PDX1 Proteins), MafA (show MAFA Proteins) and NeuroD1 (show NEUROD1 Proteins) bind to the A, C and E elements in the insulin promoter and regulate the transcriptional activity of the insulin promoter.
The interplay of the adiponectin (show ADIPOQ Proteins) system, TNFalpha (show TNF Proteins) and insulin at a transcriptional level and, their effects on the adipogenic transcription factor PPARgamma (show PPARG Proteins), as well as on the activation of main insulin signaling pathways, is reported.
Thermodynamics of insulin unfolding have been quantified by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal unfolding measurements to determine the extent and nature of their stabilization of the insulin hexamer.
Exposing the hydrophobic core of insulin can induce the increase of amyloidogenicity and formation of higher-order polymerized fibrils, which is less toxic to membranes.
Data suggest that a mutation in INS (C94Y) results a transgenic disease model for the investigation of permanent neonatal diabetes.
The results show that modulation of plasma insulin levels by dietary carbohydrates seems possible in anabolic sows, but IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) levels are less easily modified.
insulin increased GCLc (show GCLC Proteins) promoter activity, which required a prerequisite increase or decrease in medium glucose
SOCS3 (show SOCS3 Proteins) is an important negative regulator of insulin signaling in porcine adipocytes.
Plasma concentrations of insulin in pigs fed once per day were lower before feeding than after the meal. Plasma concentrations of insulin in ad libitum fed pigs exhibited random fluctuations.
Insulin signaling role in skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in in transition and postpartum period
Differences between human and bovine insulin kinetics under shear
increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction
Hormonal gene expression involved in residual feed intake in dairy cows may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin (show LEP Proteins)-NPY (show NPY Proteins) and insulin signaling pathways.
Raman spectra of amino acids by Density Functional Theory method have been calculated. Experimental Raman spectra of insulin has been done. The simulated Raman spectrum of insulin is obtained from amino acid spectrum.
Contains Binding kinetics for insulin binding
Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T6 bovine insulin complexed with Ni(2 (show VMP1 Proteins)+) and Cu(2+) were solved to 1.50 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively.
The present study examined the effect of insulin-mediated activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (show FRAP1 Proteins) complex 1 (MTORC1) signaling network on the proliferation of primary culture of theca-interstitial (T-I) cells.
In-situ spectroscopic investigation of ultrasonic assisted unfolding and aggregation of insulin.
insulin supports early initiation of the mesodermal factor Brachyury (show TBX1 Proteins) and the signalling molecules Wnt3a (show WNT3A Proteins) and Wnt4 (show WNT4 Proteins) as well as the progression of mesoderm formation
Data show that type 1 diabetic blastocyst did not express insulin mRNA.
Wnt3a increased the expression of NeuroD1 and Ins2 in the hypothalamus.
Data suggest that resveratrol acts on differentiating preadipocytes by inhibiting insulin signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis, and lipogenesis.
have characterized the distinctive sex-specific phenotypes exhibited by the ApoE(-/-):Ins2(+/Akita) mouse model and present evidence for the action of sex hormones on pancreatic beta-cell function
Data indicate that Src homology-2 domain containing protein B (SHB) deficiency causes a chronic increase in beta-cell focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity that perturbs the normal insulin secretory characteristics of beta-cells.
Mouse Ins2 and Ins1 promoters were transiently activated in mouse fetal hepatocytes of embryonic days 13.5 and 16.5, respectively.
Data indicate that insulin/incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) does not prevent but induces diabetes in RIP-CD80GP transgenic mice.
RORalpha is a transcriptional activator of insulin.
Mice deficient in coinhibitory PD-L1 (show CD274 Proteins) or PD-1 (show PDCD1 Proteins) molecules (PD-L1 (show CD274 Proteins)(-/-) and PD-1 (show PDCD1 Proteins)(-/-) mice), were used to study induction of preproinsulin (ppins)-specific CD8 (show CD8A Proteins) T-cell responses and experimental autoimmune diabetes.
Data suggest that CD34 (show CD34 Proteins) may be a specific marker for functionality, with some specificity for insulin.
Akita mouse has a mutation in Ins2 and is a model of the effects of maternal and paternal hyperglycemia in wildtype offspring
Temporal and spatial expression of two insulin genes (insa and insab) during early developmental stages.
These findings suggest that GHRL (show GHRL Proteins) regulates INS synthesis by mediating its action on growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (show GHSR Proteins) in the central nervous system and partly involved in carbohydrate-glycogen (show GYS2 Proteins) metabolism.
Our results indicate that in adult tilapia insulin expression is not restricted to the endocrine pancreatic cells, but also occurs in endocrine cells of the pituitary gland and in the neuronal cells of the brain.
After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.