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Data indicate mutation of androgen receptor (AR) gene in a patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and his family members.
We dissect the roles of androgen receptor in prostate cancer from molecular perspective to provide clues for battling prostate cancer, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer
Thus, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the proposed cross-talk between the Wnt (show WNT2 Proteins)/beta-catenin (show CTNNB1 Proteins) and Hippo pathways in androgen-independent prostate cancer development.
BAP18 (show C17orf49 Proteins) as an epigenetic modifier regulates AR-induced transactivation and the function of BAP18 (show C17orf49 Proteins) might be targeted in human prostate cancer to promote tumor growth and progression to castration-resistance.
in AR a lower number of CAG repeats (CAG)19 were associated with a greater risk for early-onset prostate cancer (odds ratio: 2.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-4.69). CAG repeat (show CELF3 Proteins) length could increase the risk for sporadic and early-onset of disease
DDX39B (show DDX39 Proteins) and its paralog DDX39A (show DDX39 Proteins) regulate androgen receptor splice variant AR-V7 generation
The mechanism of IL-6-induced AR activation is mediated through enhancing AR-SRC-1 interaction and inhibiting AR-SMRT interaction.
ID4 (show ID4 Proteins) expression induces AR expression in PC3 (show PCSK1 Proteins) cells, which generally lack AR. ID4 (show ID4 Proteins) expression increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and invasion.
some orphan nuclear receptor exhibit crosstalk or interference with androgen receptor (AR) signaling in either normal or malignant prostatic cells, highlighting their involvement in prostate cancer progression as androgen and AR signaling pathway play critical roles in this process
In an international cohort of male patients, who presented with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS (show GART Proteins)) before the age of 16 years, 20 different mutations in AR (androgen receptor) gene were exhibited. Data suggest that boys with genetically confirmed PAIS (show GART Proteins) are likely to have a poorer clinical outcome as they age than those with 46,XY disorders of sex development.
Findings indicate that targeting androgen receptor (AR) with ASC (show STS Proteins)-J9 in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) resulted in an attenuation in the severity of disease and cardiac injury.
The findings suggest that Cyp3a deficiency stimulated the expression of Scap via activation of the AR, which elevated cholesterogenic gene expression levels through activation of SREBP2 (show SREBF2 Proteins) and increased total cholesterol contents in the prostate.
Gli1 and Gli2 exhibited different functions in the regulation of p63 expression or proliferation of p63(+) cells in Kras-AR driven tumors.
Therefore, BA321 is a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM (show SARM1 Proteins)) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis in the male.
We show that Foxp1 (show FOXP1 Proteins) and the androgen receptor are co-expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons and that brain-specific (show CALY Proteins) androgen receptor KO (ArNesCre) mice exhibit reduced Foxp1 (show FOXP1 Proteins) expression in the striatum at E17.5 and P7.5 and an increased Foxp2 (show FOXP2 Proteins) level in the cortex at P7.5. Thus, androgens may contribute to sex-specific differences in Foxp1 (show FOXP1 Proteins) and Foxp2 (show FOXP2 Proteins) expression and ultrasonic vocalizations
Pharmacologic and genetic androgen receptor blockade causes attenuation of abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.
The results of the present study indicate that Aard is a target of AR action in mouse Sertoli cells and suggest a novel finding by which the loss of AR function in Sertoli cells blocks spermatogenesis and results in male infertility.
Seminal vesicles were evaluated by morphological and immunohistochemical parameters; androgenic receptor (AR), Insulin-like growth factor 1 (show IGF1 Proteins) (IGFR-1) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 (show MMP9 Proteins)). Intense AR reactivity was seen in both stroma and epithelial regions in the TRAMP (show DPT Proteins) 22 group. Intense IGFR-1 and MMP-9 (show MMP9 Proteins) stromal immunolabeling was identified in both TRAMP (show DPT Proteins) groups
Data indicate that nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1 (Nr0b1 (show NR0B1 Proteins)) interacted with androgen receptor (AR) in Sertoli cells (SCs (show TWIST1 Proteins)).
these results demonstrate that Srsf4 (show SRSF4 Proteins) is a direct downstream target of the androgen receptor in mouse Sertoli cells.
substantial up-regulation of androgen receptor expression during trophoblast giant cell differentiation suggests that androgens may be related to this process and are active products of bovine placental steroidogenesis
no association between the AR CAG polymorphism and the relative risk of prostate cancer in white Brazilian individuals with a CAG repeat (show CELF3 Proteins)
FSHR (show FSHR Proteins) is specifically regulated through androgen receptor in granulosa cells
Roles of IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) and the estrogen, androgen and IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) receptors in estradiol-17beta- and trenbolone acetate-stimulated proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells.
In GD20 and PD2 (show PAF1 Proteins) males we found the reduction of the luminal compartment, inflammatory changes, decreased androgen receptor and increased Cx43 (show GJA1 Proteins) expression
Data suggest that signal transduction involving androgen receptor is involved in apoptosis of granulosa cells (as seen in follicular atresia).
Pig ejaculated spermatozoa express androgen receptor.
Sertoli cell maturation during puberty in the stallion was accompanied by a reduced expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (show AMH Proteins) and its receptor, arrest of cell proliferation, increased expression of androgen receptor
The vesicular gland of castrated goats showed significantly lower AR and COX-2 immuno-expression than intact goats indicating that both AR and COX-2 are androgen dependent.
Androgen receptor (AR) and Wilms' tumor gene 1 expression dramatically decreased after heat treatment in Sertoli cells
The androgen receptor gene is more than 90 kb long and codes for a protein that has 3 major functional domains: the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, and androgen-binding domain. The protein functions as a steroid-hormone activated transcription factor. Upon binding the hormone ligand, the receptor dissociates from accessory proteins, translocates into the nucleus, dimerizes, and then stimulates transcription of androgen responsive genes. This gene contains 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments that encode polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the N-terminal transactivation domain of its protein. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract causes spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). Mutations in this gene are also associated with complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS). Two alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.
, Ar beta
, androgen nuclear receptor variant 2
, dihydrotestosterone receptor
, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4
, androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease)
, testicular feminization
, androgen receptor (Testicular feminization), same as Tfm
, androgen receptor AR
, prostate androgen receptor