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GGN (show GGN Proteins) and CAG repeat (show CELF3 Proteins) polymorphisms of androgen receptors are associated with testicular cancer.
enzalutamide acts as an AR antagonist. However, when the C-ring of enzalutamide is near to helix H11 or the Loop 11-12, H12 (show HIST1H1C Proteins) tends to close to form a coactivator binding site to facilitate transcription, enzalutamide acts as an AR agonist.
Studies indicate that in the presence of estrogen receptor alpha (show ESR1 Proteins) (ERa), AR may antagonize the ERalpha (show ESR1 Proteins)-induced effects, whereas in the absence of estrogens, AR may act as an ERalpha (show ESR1 Proteins)-mimic, promoting tumor.
Data indicate that androgen receptor (AR) is a weak, however, not independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis.
UT-155 and UT-69 reduce androgen receptor (AR) expression and UT-155 inhibits growth of prostate cancer xenografts.
We suggest that the induction of SRC (show SRC Proteins) results in increased prostate cancer metastasis that is linked to the dysregulation of the AR signaling pathway through the inactivation of miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-203
CDC6 (show CDC6 Proteins) expression is increased during prostate cancer (PCa (show FLVCR1 Proteins)) progression and positively correlates with AR in PCa (show FLVCR1 Proteins) tissues.
Data indicate that combinations of androgen receptor (AR) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR (show FRAP1 Proteins)) inhibitors were effective in suppressing tumor growth including bicalutamide increased eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E (show EIF4E Proteins)) phosphorylation.
Peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PADI2 (show PADI2 Proteins)) is required for activation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling under androgen-deprived condition.
The results show ZIP9 (show SLC39A9 Proteins) is a specific Gi coupled-mAR (show IRF1 Proteins) mediating testosterone-induced MAP kinase (show MAPK1 Proteins) and zinc signaling in PC3 (show PCSK1 Proteins)-ZIP9 (show SLC39A9 Proteins) cells.
experimental manipulation of the prenatal androgen level, by blocking the androgen receptor with flutamide or activating the androgen receptor with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), leads to changes in the length of the fingers of all paws in males and females.
Silencing of androgen receptor rescues the muscular spinal atrophy transgenic mice.
Taken together, our findings provide evidence for a novel crosstalk and a crossregulation between ING1 and ING2 in regulating androgen receptor-mediated transactivation and suggest that ING2 acts as a novel corepressor that inhibits AR signaling, prostate cancer cell growth, and migration.
Prostate 5aR1 levels were positively correlated with adjusted prostate most severe lesion scores. Downregulation of androgen receptor and 5alpha-reductase 2, along with upregulation of 5a-reductase 1 in tumors may promote prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer development in TRAMP (show DPT Proteins) mice
Bisphenol A inhibits Sertoli cell proliferation by interfering with androgen receptor signaling pathway.
Findings indicate that targeting androgen receptor (AR) with ASC (show STS Proteins)-J9 in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) resulted in an attenuation in the severity of disease and cardiac injury.
The findings suggest that Cyp3a deficiency stimulated the expression of Scap via activation of the AR, which elevated cholesterogenic gene expression levels through activation of SREBP2 (show SREBF2 Proteins) and increased total cholesterol contents in the prostate.
Gli1 and Gli2 exhibited different functions in the regulation of p63 expression or proliferation of p63(+) cells in Kras-AR driven tumors.
Therefore, BA321 is a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM (show SARM1 Proteins)) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis in the male.
We show that Foxp1 (show FOXP1 Proteins) and the androgen receptor are co-expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons and that brain-specific (show CALY Proteins) androgen receptor KO (ArNesCre) mice exhibit reduced Foxp1 (show FOXP1 Proteins) expression in the striatum at E17.5 and P7.5 and an increased Foxp2 (show FOXP2 Proteins) level in the cortex at P7.5. Thus, androgens may contribute to sex-specific differences in Foxp1 (show FOXP1 Proteins) and Foxp2 (show FOXP2 Proteins) expression and ultrasonic vocalizations
substantial up-regulation of androgen receptor expression during trophoblast giant cell differentiation suggests that androgens may be related to this process and are active products of bovine placental steroidogenesis
no association between the AR CAG polymorphism and the relative risk of prostate cancer in white Brazilian individuals with a CAG repeat (show CELF3 Proteins)
FSHR (show FSHR Proteins) is specifically regulated through androgen receptor in granulosa cells
Roles of IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) and the estrogen, androgen and IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) receptors in estradiol-17beta- and trenbolone acetate-stimulated proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells.
In GD20 and PD2 (show PAF1 Proteins) males we found the reduction of the luminal compartment, inflammatory changes, decreased androgen receptor and increased Cx43 (show GJA1 Proteins) expression
Data suggest that signal transduction involving androgen receptor is involved in apoptosis of granulosa cells (as seen in follicular atresia).
Pig ejaculated spermatozoa express androgen receptor.
Androgen receptor (AR) and Wilms' tumor gene 1 expression dramatically decreased after heat treatment in Sertoli cells
Sertoli cell maturation during puberty in the stallion was accompanied by a reduced expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (show AMH Proteins) and its receptor, arrest of cell proliferation, increased expression of androgen receptor
The vesicular gland of castrated goats showed significantly lower AR and COX-2 immuno-expression than intact goats indicating that both AR and COX-2 are androgen dependent.
The androgen receptor gene is more than 90 kb long and codes for a protein that has 3 major functional domains: the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, and androgen-binding domain. The protein functions as a steroid-hormone activated transcription factor. Upon binding the hormone ligand, the receptor dissociates from accessory proteins, translocates into the nucleus, dimerizes, and then stimulates transcription of androgen responsive genes. This gene contains 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments that encode polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the N-terminal transactivation domain of its protein. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract causes spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). Mutations in this gene are also associated with complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS). Two alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.
androgen nuclear receptor variant 2
, dihydrotestosterone receptor
, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4
, testicular feminization
, androgen receptor (Testicular feminization), same as Tfm
, androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease)
, androgen receptor AR
, Ar beta
, androgen receptor
, prostate androgen receptor