This gene encodes a membrane-bound glycoprotein. The encoded protein acts as an enzyme and plays a central role in thyroid gland function. The protein functions in the iodination of tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin and phenoxy-ester formation between pairs of iodinated tyrosines to generate the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Mutations in this gene are associated with several disorders of thyroid hormonogenesis, including congenital hypothyroidism, congenital goiter, and thyroid hormone organification defect IIA. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined.