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Human GHRL Protein expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) - ABIN413323
Iantorno, Chen, Kim, Tesauro, Lauro, Cardillo, Quon: Ghrelin has novel vascular actions that mimic PI 3-kinase-dependent actions of insulin to stimulate production of NO from endothelial cells. in American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 2007
Human GHRL Protein expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) - ABIN620667
Ferro, Gutiérrez-Gallego, Bosch, Farré, Segura: Fit-for-Purpose Radio Receptor Assay for the Determination of Growth Hormone Secretagogues in Urine. in Journal of biomolecular screening 2015
ghrelin binds to serum albumin (show ALB Proteins) and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone.
Fasting upregulates Fpn1 (show SLC40A1 Proteins) expression in spleen and peritoneal macrophages, probably via a ghrelin/GHSR1a/MAPK (show MAPK1 Proteins) signaling pathway.
ghrelin has a critical role in preventing hypoglycemia and promoting survival during severe caloric restriction, a process that requires cell-expressed beta1AR (show ADRB1 Proteins)
findings show that the capacity of circulating ghrelin to acutely induce gastric emptying in mice requires the integrity of the area postrema, which contains a population of GABA neurons that are a target of plasma ghrelin
Des (show DES Proteins)-acylated ghrelin reduced blood-brain barrier disruption in vivo and attenuated the hyper-permeability of mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cells after oxygen glucose deprivation.
des (show DES Proteins)-acyl ghrelin produces an anxiogenic effect under nonstressed conditions, but this switches to an anxiolytic effect under stress
data support the notion that ghrelin activates ParaVentricular Nucleus CRF (show CRH Proteins) neurons via inhibition of local GABAergic tone, in an Arcuate nucleus-independent manner.
ghrelin may mediate part of its metabolic actions through modulation of hypothalamic astrocytes and that this effect could involve astrocyte mediated changes in local glucose and glutamate (show GRIN1 Proteins) metabolism that alter the signals/nutrients reaching neighboring neurons.
These studies reemphasize the beneficial effects imparted by co-administration of obestatin and CCK8 (show CCK Proteins) and their potential use towards countering obesity.
Stress in a postpartum mother has persistent effects on the body weight of their offspring. Increased ghrelin and decreased leptin (show LEP Proteins) expression in the stomach may play a role in these effects.
Study suggests that ghrelin promotes the growth and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSC primarily through the ERK1/2 pathway.
Data show that ghrelin was identified in cultured differentiated adipocytes, but did not influence either preadipocyte proliferation or differentiation, indicating that it may have other adipose-related roles.
data provides evidence for the first time in fish of a possible modulatory role of ghrelin on the metabolic regulation by fatty acid of food intake occurring in the hypothalamus
Carrying a G to T substitution in rs696217 preproghrelin gene seems to mark a successful weight loss outcome after gastric bypass in morbidly obese patients
Low plasma ghrelin level is associated with mild cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetic patients.
There might be a strong correlation between FGF-23 (show FGF23 Proteins) and ghrelin levels irrespective of the stage of chronic kidney disease and the dialysis modality
Acylated ghrelin increases in obese individuals pre- and 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes post prandial.
Hemodialysis improves upper GI symptoms and gastric slow waves in CKD patients. An increase in ghrelin and a decrease in GLP-1 (show GCG Proteins) might be involved in the HD-induced improvement in gastric slow waves.
In the obese polycystic ovary syndrome group, anti-mullerian hormone (show AMH Proteins) was associated with ghrelin levels independent of age, insulin (show INS Proteins), and total testosterone. There was no association between total ghrelin and anti-mullerian hormone (show AMH Proteins) levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, non-obese controls, or obese controls.
Studies suggest that metformin treatment was not associated with a decrease in blood leptin (show LEP Proteins) levels, or increases in blood ghrelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Ghrelin was significantly higher and the obestatin/ghrelin ratio was significantly lower in celiac disease (CD) patients compared with both diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-d) and healthy controls (HC). Significant differences were found in the Leu72Met polymorphism among groups, with the reduction of the GT genotype and the T allele in both CD and IBS-d patients compared with HC.
Synovial fluid ghrelin levels demonstrated an independent and negative association with meniscus injury, cartilage damage, and clinical severity in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.
Based on the obtained results, it was proposed that ghrelin may be considered as playing a role in the etiopathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum that may result in disruption of the relationship between nesfatin-1 (show NUCB2 Proteins) and ghrelin.
GHRL is an important candidate gene that may be used to identify genetic variations that influence traits of economic importance in beef cattle
Single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the ghrelin gene could cause changes in the putative transcription factor (show TCF19 Proteins) binding sites.
The effects of dietary energy on the metabolism of ghrelin, leptin (show LEP Proteins) and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (show GHSR Proteins) in blood and tissues of steers are reported.
ghrelin declined after glucose infusion and before the insulin (show INS Proteins) peak; post-nadir surge in ghrelin may be regulated by the decline in circulating concentrations of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids
present findings suggest that ghrelin may play an important role in regulation of mammary function in lactating dairy goats via GHSR (show GHSR Proteins)-1a
These expression data may indicate that factors other than ghrelin and leptin (show LEP Proteins) are more involved in the regulation of feed intake in pigs apparently acclimated to heat stress.
slc30A8 (show SLC30A8 Proteins) colocalizes with ghrelin and motilin (show MLN Proteins) in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs
Studied an alternative vascular approach to the modulation of gastric ghrelin levels..
Obestatin enhances proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes promoting PPARgamma (show PPARG Proteins) and C/EBPa (show CEBPA Proteins) expression, and inhibiting preadipocyte apoptosis by decreasing expression of Caspase-3 (show CASP3 Proteins), Caspase-7 (show CASP7 Proteins) and Caspase-9 (show CASP9 Proteins).
The expression of ghrelin in the digestive tract of low birth weight and normal weight piglets is reported.
Data suggest that a dietary factor (here, high levels of dietary copper) is able to up-regulate expression of ghrelin in the fundic gland of growing pigs; the diets tested in this study also increase feed intake and promote weight gain.
Ghrelin immunolocalization in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs at different ages were studied and it was concluded that gastric ghrelin expression is not related merely to age but could also potentially be influenced by food intake.
BsrI polymorphism at the ghrelin gene locus is potentially associated with carcass and meat quality traits.
Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were greater before feeding and decreased after feeding in pigs fed once per day; there was no consistent pattern to ghrelin secretion in the ad libitum fed group.
glucose output by primary porcine hepatocytes in suspension culture, after incubation with acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG), and hexarelin (HEX).
This gene encodes ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein, which generates ghrelin and obestatin. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and is involved in regulating growth hormone release. Obestatin was initially reported to be an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39 and was involved in satiety and decreased food intake\; however, these findings are controversial. Recent reports show that obestatin is involved in inhibiting thirst and anxiety, improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell proliferation, and increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes. Alternative promoters and alternative splicing result in multiple transcript variants, some of which encode different protein isoforms and some of which do not encode a protein but may regulate the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression. In addition, antisense transcripts for this gene have been identified and may also function in regulation of the ghrelin-obestatin preproprotein expression.
, growth hormone secretagogue
, growth hormone-releasing peptide
, motilin-related peptide
, ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand
, ghrelin/obestatin preprohormone
, prepro-appetite regulatory hormone
, Appetite-regulating hormone
, Growth hormone secretagogue
, Growth hormone-releasing peptide
, GH releasing peptide
, motilin related peptide
, growth hormone receptor