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The expression of AtMutSgamma (MSH7 and MSH2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that AtMutSgamma affects yeast genomic stability by recognizing specific mismatches.
The contribution of MutSalpha (MSH2-MSH6) to ultraviolet-induced DNA lesion repair and cell cycle regulation was investigated.
reported that AtMSH2 has a broad range of anti-recombination effects: it suppresses recombination between divergent direct repeats in somatic cells or between homologues from different ecotypes during meiosis
Data show that in mutS homolog 2 protein Msh2(+/-) mice, azathioprine (Aza) induced a high incidence of microsatellite instability (MSI (show EBP Proteins)) lymphomas in a dose-dependent manner.
In Msh2-/- mice, red meat enhanced survival compared to control (p<0.01) and lowered total tumour burden compared to resistant starch (p<0.167).
Angptl2 (show ANGPTL2 Proteins)-induced inflammation increases susceptibility to microenvironmental changes, allowing increased oxidative stress and decreased Msh2 expression.
Gut (show GUSB Proteins) microbes did not induce colorectal cancer in APC (show APC Proteins)(Min/+)MSH2(-/-) mice through an inflammatory response or the production of DNA mutagens but rather by providing carbohydrate-derived metabolites such as butyrate that fuel hyperproliferation of MSH2(-/-) colon epithelial cells.
MSH2-MSH3 suppresses chromosomal instability and modulates the tumor spectrum in p53 (show TP53 Proteins)-deficient tumorigenesis.
Results suggest that MSH2 is rate limiting for expansion in fragile X (show FMR1 Proteins) premutation mouse model and that MSH2 levels may be a key factor that accounts for tissue-specific differences in expansion risk.
Toxicity, induced by tert (show TERT Proteins)-butyl-hydroperoxide and potassium bromate, differs in base excision repair proficient (Mpg (show MPG Proteins) (+/+), Nth1 (+/+)) and deficient (Mpg (show MPG Proteins) (-/-), Nth1 (-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts following Msh2 knockdown, was examined.
Medium-spiny striatal neurons-specific deletion of Msh2 was sufficient to eliminate the vast majority of striatal HTT (show HTT Proteins) CAG expansions in HTT (show HTT Proteins) CAG knock-in mice.
Enhanced occupancy of Msh2 and Msh3 proteins is detected downstream of the FXN (show FXN Proteins) expanded GAA (show GAA Proteins) repeat, suggesting a model in which Msh2/3 dimers are recruited to this region to repair mismatches.
we show that AID binds cooperatively with UNG and the mismatch repair proteins Msh2-Msh6 to Ig Smu and Sgamma3 regions
Identification and characterization of novel knockout mutants of the three major MMR (show MRC1 Proteins) genes, mlh1 (show MLH1 Proteins), msh2, and msh6 (show MSH6 Proteins), in zebrafish that develop tumors at low frequencies.
Here we demonstrate that in silico saturation mutagenesis and biophysical calculations of the structural stability of the human mismatch repair protein MSH2 correlate with cellular protein levels, turnover and function. Of 24 different MSH2 variants, some of which are linked to Lynch syndrome, a destabilization of as little as 3 kcal/mol (show DUOXA1 Proteins) is sufficient to cause rapid degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
human Pol alpha interacts with MSH2-MSH6 (show MSH6 Proteins) complex
In colorectal neoplasms, negative expression of the MMR (show MRC1 Proteins) proteins MLH1 (show MLH1 Proteins), MSH2 or MSH6 (show MSH6 Proteins) was seen in 15% (47 of 313) of the patients. Defect MLH1 (show MLH1 Proteins) was most common and detected in 12% of the cases. Defect MLH1 (show MLH1 Proteins) and MSH2 were identified in each patient's normal adjacent mucosa.
unlike MutSbeta, MutSalpha may also act to protect against repeat contractions in the Fmr1 (show FMR1 Proteins) gene
The expression of genes and proteins related to DNA repair mechanism MLH1 (show MLH1 Proteins), MSH2 and ATM (show ATM Proteins) in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers was reduced.
A total of 201 unique disease-predisposing mismatch repair gene mutations were identified in 369 Lynch syndrome families. These mutations affected MLH1 (show MLH1 Proteins) in 40%, MSH2 in 36%, MSH6 (show MSH6 Proteins) in 18% and PMS2 (show PMS2 Proteins) in 6% of the families.
There is a positive correlation between the expressions of hMSH2 and hMSH6 (show MSH6 Proteins) between males (RHO=0.673 and p=0.001) and females with colorectal adenocarcinoma.
Individuals with Lynch syndrome and double-mutants in MSH6 (show MSH6 Proteins) and MSH2 had normal MSH2 expression, whereas MSH6 (show MSH6 Proteins) immunoexpression was lost in all evaluable cases.
Loss of MLH1 (show MLH1 Proteins) expression was however observed in none of those including four Microsatellite instability + tumours . Expression of MSH2, another essential MMR (show MRC1 Proteins) gene, was also examined, but no alterations were found
Overexpression of Tinman and Pannier resulted in 20% of embryos with ectopic Hand and Sur (show ABCC8 Proteins) expression. By adding MEF2 (show MYEF2 Proteins) alongside Tinman and Pannier, an expansion in expression of Hand and Sur (show ABCC8 Proteins) was observed.
Findings provide mechanistic insight into the brake on myogenesis that occurs during mesoderm specification: twist and tin expression at early stages in turn activate the myogenic inhibitor Him; yet, once Twist or Tin levels decline at mid-embryogenesis, Him is no longer expressed in the mesoderm, and MEF2 (show MYEF2 Proteins)-dependent muscle differentiation can proceed.
Plasticity in Hox/PBC (show DLAT Proteins) interaction modes is a common molecular strategy for shaping Hox transcriptional activities.
The enhancers active in the heart progenitor cells and the heart generally are dependent on tinman gene activity, whereas those active in non-cardiac mesoderm are often bound neutrally by Tinman
Genetic interaction analysis shows that spir functionally interacts with Dorsocross, tin, and pannier to properly specify the cardiac fate.
Tin is a direct regulator of midline in fly heart development.
wg and dpp (show TGFb Proteins) contribute progressively to the elaboration of the expression pattern of the mesoderm-specific homeobox (show PRRX1 Proteins)-containing gene tinman (tin), and the overlap of wg and dpp (show TGFb Proteins) in the presence of tin-expressing cells directs cardiac-specific differentiation
We show that salivary gland posterior migration requires the activities of genes that position the visceral mesoderm precursors, such as heartless, thickveins, and tinman, but does not require a differentiated visceral mesoderm.
one of the major functions of mid and H15 during cardioblast development is the re-activation of tin expression at a stage when the induction of tin by Dpp (show TGFb Proteins) in the dorsal mesoderm has ceased
dSUR is regulated by tinman and plays a protective role against hypoxic stress and pacing-induced heart failure
This locus is frequently mutated in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). When cloned, it was discovered to be a human homolog of the E. coli mismatch repair gene mutS, consistent with the characteristic alterations in microsatellite sequences (RER+ phenotype) found in HNPCC. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
mismatch repair protein
, DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2
, mutS protein homolog 2
, mismatch repair protein Msh2
, mutS-like protein 2
, MutS-like protein 2