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UPK2 encodes one of the proteins of the highly conserved urothelium-specific integral membrane proteins of the asymmetric unit membrane which forms urothelium apical plaques in mammals. Additionally we are shipping Uroplakin 2 Antibodies (24) and Uroplakin 2 Proteins (8) and many more products for this protein.
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Uroplakin II was immunopositive in 53% and 60% of urothelial carcinomas (UC) of the bladder and the ureter, respectively.
These results suggest that whereas GATA-3 and uroplakin II may be most useful in the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma metastasis, p40 may be additionally suited as a prognostic marker.
UPII, GATA3, and p40, when used in combination, are highly sensitive in the differential diagnosis of invasive urothelial carcinoma.
UPII was highly specific/moderately sensitive for urothelial carcinoma. May be a potentially useful marker to identify urothelial lineage and help distinguish UC from prostate cancer or, in conjunction with GATA3, from metastatic breast cancer.
UPII demonstrates a significantly higher sensitivity than UPIII in conventional and variant urothelial carcinomas
Uroplakin II antibody BC21 demonstrated superior sensitivity and specificity in urothelial carcinoma, compared with uroplakin III, suggesting an advantage in differential diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma and in the detection of tumors of unknown origin.
combination of prostate stem cell antigen enhancer and uroplakin II promoter is feasible in constructing bladder cancer-specific vectors
study offers no definitive support for uroplakin II mutations causing human renal tract malformations
Conversely, repair of focal mucosal defects not only employs this mechanism, but in parallel host intermediate cell daughters expressing uroplakin 2 give rise to themselves and are also contributors to superficial cells in neotissues.
role of uroplakins in CO2 transport through urothelium
The despites a lower level of expression, UPII maintain its plaque association in urothelial preneoplastic lesions.
Bladder-specific autoimmune response sufficient to induce inflammation and interstitial cystitis occurs in mice following immunization with recombinant murine UPK2.
structure of the major membrane protein complex from urinary bladder epithelial cells by cryo-electron crystallography
The UPII knockout abolished plaque formation, indicating that both uroplakin heterodimers (UPIa/II and UPIb/III or IIIb) are required for plaque assembly.
HNF4 positively regulates pUPII gene promoter activity.
all the major trans-regulatory elements required for bladder- and urethra-specific transcription are located in the 8.8 kb promoter upstream region
This gene encodes one of the proteins of the highly conserved urothelium-specific integral membrane proteins of the asymmetric unit membrane which forms urothelium apical plaques in mammals. The asymmetric unit membrane is believed to strengthen the urothelium by preventing cell rupture during bladder distention. The encoded protein is expressed in the peripheral blood of bladder cancer patients with transitional cell carcinomas.
, uroplakin II