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the carboxylesterase 1d (Ces1d) and carboxylesterase 1e (Ces1e) expression and the capacity of hydrolytic activity of liver and intestine decreased, whereas the Akt (show AKT1 Proteins)/mTOR (show FRAP1 Proteins)/HIF-1alpha (show HIF1A Proteins)/ Stra13 (DEC1 (show BHLHE40 Proteins)) signaling was activated in type 2 diabetes mice.
Inhibition of TGH (show CES1 Proteins) activity ameliorates atherosclerosis development and improves insulin (show INS Proteins) sensitivity in Ldlr (show LDLR Proteins)(-/-) mice.
TGH (show CES1 Proteins)-mediated changes in cytosolic lipid droplet dynamics, were investigated.
Carboxylesterase 3 is an adipocyte lyase
C/EBPalpha (show CEBPA Proteins) participates directly in the regulation of TGH (show CES1 Proteins), an enzyme associated with lipolysis
This study provides the first evidence of functional compensation whereby increased expression of CES3 restores intracellular cholesteryl ester hydrolytic activity and free cholesterol efflux in CES1 (show CES1 Proteins)-deficient cells.
Studies indicate that CES3 mRNA isoform expression in several tissues, particularly in colon, trachea and in brain.
CES3 seems to have a lower catalytic efficiency than the other two CESs for selected substrates.
pharmacogenomic characterization of human carboxylesterase 1A1 (show SLC45A2 Proteins), 1A2, and 1A3 genes
This gene encodes a member of the carboxylesterase large family. The family members are responsible for the hydrolysis or transesterification of various xenobiotics, such as cocaine and heroin, and endogenous substrates with ester, thioester, or amide bonds. They may participate in fatty acyl and cholesterol ester metabolism, and may play a role in the blood-brain barrier system. This gene is expressed in several tissues, particularly in colon, trachea and in brain, and the protein participates in colon and neural drug metabolism. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported, but the biological validity and/or full-length nature of some variants have not been determined.
, carboxylesterase 3
, carboxylesterase 3 (brain)
, FAEE synthase
, fatty acid ethyl ester synthase
, triacylglycerol hydrolase
, carboxyesterase ES-10
, liver carboxylesterase 10
, pI 6.1 esterase
, esterase 31
, liver carboxylesterase 31 homolog