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Data suggest that serum leptin (show LEP Proteins) and insulin levels are associated with retinal microvasculature parameters in healthy children and adolescents; higher cardiometabolic risk factors (high serum leptin (show LEP Proteins), insulin, and insulin resistance) correlate with wider retinal arterioles.
Data, including studies involving single-cell analysis, suggest that insulin-secreting cells exhibit 3 major states regarding unfolded protein response (UPR): (1) low UPR and low insulin gene expression; (2) low UPR and high insulin gene expression; (3) high UPR and low insulin gene expression. The latter state promotes cell proliferation; UPR appears to mediate recovery from ER stress due to high insulin production.
Data confirm that cord blood levels of ghrelin (show GHRL Proteins), leptin (show LEP Proteins), and insulin of term newborns correlate with anthropometric parameters at birth (birth weight, head circumference, etc.).
Glucose-dependent de-SUMOylation of tomosyn1 at K298 releases syntaxin1A (show STX1A Proteins) and controls the amplification of exocytosis in concert with a recently-identified tomosyn1-interacting partner; the Ca(2+)-binding protein (show PVALB Proteins) secretagogin (show SCGN Proteins), which dissociates from tomosyn1 in response to Ca(2 (show CA2 Proteins)+)-raising stimuli and is required for insulin granule trafficking and exocytosis downstream of Ca(2 (show CA2 Proteins)+) influx.
results indicate that higher cerebrospinal fluid insulin levels are related to impairment in cognitive performance and biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease among women and non-carriers of the APOE (show APOE Proteins) varepsilon4 allele
single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the 1:2 (4.3 A) and 1:1 (7.4 A) complexes of the insulin receptor (show INSR Proteins) ECD (show SHFM1 Proteins) dimer with insulin
Data suggest that higher plasma levels of ceramide with saturated fatty acid are associated with higher fasting levels of insulin and insulin resistance; in contrast, higher levels of sphingomyelin with saturated fatty acid are associated with lower fasting insulin and insulin resistance; this study was conduced in American Indians in AZ, OK, SD, and ND.
in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, higher leptin (show LEP Proteins) secretion may exert a direct effect on beta cell function leading to more insulin sensitivity
Identify a novel proinsulin-associated locus and demonstrate that whilst proinsulin levels are associated with carotid intima media thickness measures, proinsulin per se is unlikely to have a causative effect on cIMT.
Data suggest that both a KATP channel-dependent triggering pathway (that induces a [Ca2 (show CA2 Proteins)+]i rise in beta-cells) and an amplifying pathway (that augments the effect of Ca2 (show CA2 Proteins)+ on exocytosis) are crucial for control of insulin secretion in human islets; these studies used cultured pancreatic islets from multiorgan donors exposed to a variety of pharmacological agents.
Study used well-tempered bias exchange metadynamics simulations to determine the equilibrium ensembles of an insulin molecule under amyloidogenic conditions of low pH and high temperature. The folded state of a single insulin molecule was shown to be the most stable, longest-lived state even under amyloidogenic conditions.
The findings are consistent with previous studies that indicate a link between Na,K-ATPase (show ATP1A1 Proteins) activity and SFK signaling.
PTPLAD1 (show PTPLAD1 Proteins) and AMPK (show PRKAA1 Proteins) are rapidly compartmentalized within the plasma membrane (PM) and Golgi/endosome fractions after insulin stimulation and that ATIC (show ATIC Proteins) later accumulates in the Golgi/endosome fraction.
Pdx-1 (show PDX1 Proteins), MafA (show MAFA Proteins) and NeuroD1 (show NEUROD1 Proteins) bind to the A, C and E elements in the insulin promoter and regulate the transcriptional activity of the insulin promoter.
The interplay of the adiponectin system, TNFalpha (show TNF Proteins) and insulin at a transcriptional level and, their effects on the adipogenic transcription factor PPARgamma (show PPARG Proteins), as well as on the activation of main insulin signaling pathways, is reported.
Thermodynamics of insulin unfolding have been quantified by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal unfolding measurements to determine the extent and nature of their stabilization of the insulin hexamer.
Exposing the hydrophobic core of insulin can induce the increase of amyloidogenicity and formation of higher-order polymerized fibrils, which is less toxic to membranes.
Data suggest that a mutation in INS (C94Y) results a transgenic disease model for the investigation of permanent neonatal diabetes.
The results show that modulation of plasma insulin levels by dietary carbohydrates seems possible in anabolic sows, but IGF-I (show IGF1 Proteins) levels are less easily modified.
insulin increased GCLc (show GCLC Proteins) promoter activity, which required a prerequisite increase or decrease in medium glucose
The structural dynamics of insulin hexamer dissociation were studied by the photoinduced temperature jump technique and monitored by time-resolved X-ray scattering. The process of hexamer dissociation was found to involve several transient intermediates, including an expanded hexamer and an unstable tetramer.
Insulin signaling role in skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in in transition and postpartum period
Differences between human and bovine insulin kinetics under shear
increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction
Hormonal gene expression involved in residual feed intake in dairy cows may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin (show LEP Proteins)-NPY (show NPY Proteins) and insulin signaling pathways.
Raman spectra of amino acids by Density Functional Theory method have been calculated. Experimental Raman spectra of insulin has been done. The simulated Raman spectrum of insulin is obtained from amino acid spectrum.
Contains Binding kinetics for insulin binding
Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T6 bovine insulin complexed with Ni(2 (show VMP1 Proteins)+) and Cu(2+) were solved to 1.50 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively.
The present study examined the effect of insulin-mediated activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (show FRAP1 Proteins) complex 1 (MTORC1) signaling network on the proliferation of primary culture of theca-interstitial (T-I) cells.
insulin supports early initiation of the mesodermal factor Brachyury (show TBX1 Proteins) and the signalling molecules Wnt3a (show WNT3A Proteins) and Wnt4 (show WNT4 Proteins) as well as the progression of mesoderm formation
Data show that type 1 diabetic blastocyst did not express insulin mRNA.
Data (including data from studies in knockout mice) suggest that Ins2 is involved in impaired nociception/diabetic neuropathy; here, mice heterozygous for mutant Ins2 exhibit (a) significant loss of intra-epidermal nerve fibers, (b) markedly reduced responsiveness to heat in dorsal root ganglion neurons, and (c) mostly unchanged function of cold-sensitive neurons; such mice become diabetic soon after weaning.
In the present study, the mRNA expression of the two mouse insulin genes Ins1 and Ins2 was investigated in MIN6 cells treated with different concentrations of melatonin, and insulin secretion was detected under the same conditions. Following the overexpression or silencing of MTNR1B (show MTNR1B Proteins), the activities of components of the MAPK (show MAPK1 Proteins) signaling pathway
These results suggest that PABP (show EBP Proteins) interacts with HuD (show ELAVL4 Proteins) in basal glucose conditions making translation inhibitory complex, however upon glucose stimulation this association is affected and PABP (show EBP Proteins) is acted upon by PDI (show PDIA3 Proteins) resulting in stimulation of insulin translation.
Data (including data from studies using knockout mice) suggest that Ins1 and Ins2 are required for pancreatic beta-cell maturation; thus, Ins1 and Ins2 are needed for normal beta-cell development and for maintenance of normal beta-cell function.
cTAGE5 deletion in pancreatic beta cells impairs proinsulin trafficking and insulin biogenesis in mice.
These results suggest that prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia in the Ins2(Akita+/-) mice leads to progressive testicular disruption mediated by testicular activin activity, rather than hormonal dysregulation.
report that EndMTs occur in the diabetic endothelium of Ins2Akita/wt mouse, and show that induction of sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2 (show SOX2 Proteins)) is a mediator of excess BMP signaling that results in activation of EndMTs and increased vascular calcification
Transplantation of transduced hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expressing proinsulin II prevents diabetes development.
Wnt3a increased the expression of NeuroD1 and Ins2 in the hypothalamus.
Data suggest that resveratrol acts on differentiating preadipocytes by inhibiting insulin signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis, and lipogenesis.
Temporal and spatial expression of two insulin genes (insa and insab) during early developmental stages.
These findings suggest that GHRL (show GHRL Proteins) regulates INS synthesis by mediating its action on growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (show GHSR Proteins) in the central nervous system and partly involved in carbohydrate-glycogen (show GYS2 Proteins) metabolism.
Our results indicate that in adult tilapia insulin expression is not restricted to the endocrine pancreatic cells, but also occurs in endocrine cells of the pituitary gland and in the neuronal cells of the brain.
After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.