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Genetic interaction experiments demonstrate Syx4, Syt4, and Nlg1 regulate synaptic growth and plasticity through both shared and parallel signaling pathways.
these results indicate that the activation of beta-ARs induces secretory granules and cell membrane fusion via the interaction of VAMP-2 and syntaxin-4 in a PKA- and F-actin-dependent manner in human submandibular gland. Up-regulated beta-ARs might participate in altering protein secretion in transplanted submandibular gland by promoting the interaction of VAMP-2 with syntaxin-4.
Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a colocalization of syntaxin 4 with a MVB-specific marker, exosomes and hepatitis C virus (HCV) core, which suggests a fraction of syntaxin 4 is associated with exosomes loaded with HCV. Altogether, it is assumed that syntaxin 4 is a novel essential cellular factor for the release of HCV.
The authors found that activation of dendritic cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide leads to increased Forster resonance energy transfer-fluorescence of fluorescently labeled syntaxin 4 with VAMP3 specifically at the plasma membrane, indicating increased SNARE complex formation, whereas FRET with other tested SNAREs was unaltered.
Data suggest MUNC18C is required for STX4-mediated invadopodium formation and tumor invasion of extracellular matrix; N-terminal STX4 fragment binds to MUNC18C and inhibits interactions of STX4 with synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2). Fibrosarcoma/adenocarcinoma cell lines were used in these studies. (MUNC18C = syntaxin binding protein MUNC18C; STX4 = syntaxin 4)
The analysis revealed three candidate genes GSK3B, PTPN1, STX4 that are differentially expressed in study subjects. GSK3B was highly significant in Ps-T2D (P=0.00018, FR=-26.6), followed by Ps (P=0.0028, FR=-14.5) and T2D groups (P=0.032, FR=-5.9). PTPN1 showed significant association only with PS-T2D (P=0.00027, FR=-8.5). STX4 showed significant association with both Ps (P=0.0002, FR=-20) and Ps-T2D (P=0.0016, FR=-11.2).
When the expression of STX4 mRNA was inhibited with short or small interfering, or silencing, RNA in macrophages, the survival of Brucella melitensis was significantly reduced.
Syntaxin-4 has a role in mediating exocytosis of pre-docked and newcomer insulin granules underlying biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human pancreatic beta cells
Increased level of SNAP23-Syntaxin4-VAMP7 interaction correlates with decreased Syntaxin4 phosphorylation and trafficking of MT1-MMP to invadopodia during cellular invasion.
upregulation of Syntaxin 4 is sufficient to significantly improve insulin secretory function to human type 2 diabetes islets retaining low levels of residual function
STX4 is implicated in the antibody secretion.
Syntaxin-4 plays a vital role in exocytosis of IgE from plasma cells. Knock-down of syntaxin-4, but not VAMP3 dramatically reduced IgE secretion from U266 plasma cells causing it to accumulate in the cell.
These results revealed, for the first time, the extracellular role of syntaxin4 and shed light on the division of the extracellular effects exerted by epimorphin and syntaxin4 on keratinocyte cornification.
siRNA knockdown (KD) of syntaxins 3 and 4 in HeLa cells reduced cell surface expression of alpha5beta1 and alpha3beta1 integrins
Syntaxin 4 activation and insulin release in the absence of the glucose stimulus, consistent with nitrosative stress and dysfunctional exocytosis
Stx4 is an essential postsynaptic component for synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons.
Syntaxin 4 is required for acid sphingomyelinase activity and apoptotic function.
dysferlin and syntaxin-4 similarly transit a common endosomal pathway in skeletal muscle cells.
Stx4 defines an exocytic zone that directs membrane fusion for postsynaptic plasticity, revealing a novel specialization for local membrane traffic in dendritic spines.
Syntaxin 4 and Synip (syntaxin 4 interacting protein) regulate insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta HC-9 cells
syntaxin 4 is involved in the intracellular transport of MT1-MMP toward the plasma membrane
Potentially involved in docking of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic active zones (By similarity).
, syntaxin 4
, renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-31
, syntaxin 4A (placental)