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EMX2 encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor that is the homolog to the 'empty spiracles' gene in Drosophila.
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EMX2 is frequently down-regulated in human colorectal cancer, and down-regulation of EMX2 is a prognostic marker for disease-free and overall survival.
Emx2 is a novel promising tool for therapy of glioblastoma and prevention of its recurrences.
EMX2 inhibits proliferation and tumorigenesis through inactivation of the Wnt (show WNT2 Proteins)/beta-catenin (show CTNNB1 Proteins) pathway in CRC (show CALR Proteins) cells.
EMX2 expression was down-regulated in lung SCC (show CYP11A1 Proteins) tissue compared to matched adjacent normal tissue. EMX2 expression was associated with improved overall survival. Knockdown promoted chemo-resistance and cell migration.
Although it is uncommon (0.19%), EMX2 is the first gene identified that if perturbed may cause isolated incomplete mullerian fusion.
Deletions of EMX2 have been associated with a wide range of DSD (show FADS1 Proteins).
EMX2 expression is downregulated in advanced cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma and may serve as an important prognostic and predictive molecular biomarker of progression-free survival.
downregulation of empty spiracles homeobox 2 (EMX2) was associated with tumor progression and may be a critical factor in the carcinogenesis and progression of endometrial cancer
EMX2 expression led to inhibition of cell proliferation and Wnt (show WNT2 Proteins) signaling pathway both in vitro and in a gastric cancer xenograft model in vivo.
Study analyzed mutations of EMX2 gene in 45 prostate carcinomas, 51 non-small cell lung cancers, 43 gastric carcinomas, 44 colorectal carcinomas, and 43 breast carcinomas by polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism assay.
We found that expression of Emx2 and Lhx2 (show LHX2 Proteins) initiated between neuronal progenitor and neuronal precursor stages. As far as the sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ are concerned, Meis1 (show MEIS1 Proteins) and Meis2 (show MEIS2 Proteins) were only expressed in the apical layer, together with Gnai2 (show GNAI2 Proteins), but not in the basal layer.
Results showed that Emx2 overexpression in cortico-cerebral stem cells inhibits astrogenesis, largely in a cell-autonomous way
Emx2 expression led to inhibition of cell proliferation and Wnt (show WNT2 Proteins) signaling pathway both in vitro and in a gastric cancer xenograft model in vivo.
A high incidence of urinary tract anomalies in Pax2 (show PAX2 Proteins);Emx2 were found in compound heterozygous mice that are not found in single heterozygous mice.
Pbx genes share overlapping functions and Pbx1 (show PBX1 Proteins) and Emx2 genetically interact in pelvic formation.
These results strongly suggest that Emx2 is required for regulation of tight junction assembly and allowing migration of the gonadal epithelia to the mesenchyme, which are possibly mediated by suppression of Egfr (show EGFR Proteins) expression.
detailed picture of Emx2 and Foxg1 (show FOXG1 Proteins) activities in cortico-cerebral histogenesis resulted from this study
Emx2 expression was greatly reduced, but persisted in the telencephalon of the enhancer mutant, indicating that there exists another enhancer for Emx2 expression unique to mammalian telencephalon.
Scapula development is governed by genetic interactions of Pbx1 (show PBX1 Proteins) with its family members and with Emx2 via their cooperative control of Alx1 (show ALX1 Proteins)
Emx2 and early hair cell development in the mouse inner ear are reported.
This gene encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor that is the homolog to the 'empty spiracles' gene in Drosophila. Research on this gene in humans has focused on its expression in three tissues: dorsal telencephalon, olfactory neuroepithelium, and urogenetial system. It is expressed in the dorsal telencephalon during development in a low rostral-lateral to high caudal-medial gradient and is proposed to pattern the neocortex into defined functional areas. It is also expressed in embryonic and adult olfactory neuroepithelia where it complexes with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and possibly regulates mRNA transport or translation. In the developing urogenital system, it is expressed in epithelial tissues and is negatively regulated by HOXA10. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins.
empty spiracles homolog 2
, empty spiracles-like protein 2
, homeobox protein EMX2