Human reproduction is controlled by the hypothalaic-pituitary gonadal axis laid down early in fetal development. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as GnRH-associated peptide, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), luliberin or gonadorelin, is a decapeptide that is an important molecule in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis control circuit. GnRH is produced by hypothalamic neurons and secreted in a pulsatile manner into the capillary plexus of the medianeminence. GnRH affects the release of lutenizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary. In addition to hypothalamic GnRH (GnRH I), a second GnRH form (GnRH II) functions primarily in the midbrain. GnRH is expressed in the acrosomal region of human sperm and in the anterior pituitary tissue and cancer cells. Unlike GnRH I, GnRH II is highly expressed outside the brain, particularly in the kidney, bone marrow and prostate, suggesting that it may have multiple functions. GnRH binds to a specific G protein-coupled receptor in the pituitary to regulate synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins.
Synonyms: GnRH II, GnRH-associated peptide 2, GnRH-associated peptide II, gnrh2, GON2_HUMAN, Gonadoliberin II, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone II, LH-RH II, Luliberin II, Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone II, Progonadoliberin 2, Progonadoliberin II.