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anti-Mouse (Murine) GAL Antibodies:
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Dog (Canine) Polyclonal GAL Primary Antibody for WB - ABIN2792267
Levran, Londono, OHara, Nielsen, Peles, Rotrosen, Casadonte, Linzy, Randesi, Ott, Adelson, Kreek: Genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction: a candidate gene association study. in Genes, brain, and behavior 2009
Neuronal hypothalamic regulation of body metabolism and bone density is galanin dependent.
Findings indicate a causal role of ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) galanin (GAL) neurons in both sleep induction and heat loss.
Galanin, acting via the GAL1 receptor and Gi -coupled signalling in L and K cells, is a potent inhibitor of GLP-1 and GIP secretion
Galanin released by cancer induces neuritogenesis, facilitating perineural invasion.
Study shows that LIF-treated postmitotic oligodendrocytes secrete a number of neuropeptides, in particular galanin, at the mRNA and peptide level, and galanin itself was shown to be a survival factor for oligodendrocytes
Results suggest that GAL is a regulator of myelination, as demonstrated by MBP synthesis, and may be one of the myelination promoters
Oleuropein protects mice from gh-fat diet induced adiposity by upregulation of genes involved in WNT10b-mediated signaling and downregulation of genes involved in galanin-mediated signaling cascades.
medial preoptic area galanin neurons emerge as an essential regulatory node of male and female parenting behaviour and other social responses
Analysis of the gene proximal region using EMSA and ChIP assays showed that CREB protein interacts with the galanin promoter both in vitro and in vivo. Additional EMSA analysis revealed that an SP1 consensus site mediated protein-DNA complex formation.
The expression of mRNA galanin is increased following chronic restraint stress.
These results suggest that sertraline-related galanin induction in ventral dentate gyrus may play an important role in therapeutic mechanisms for depression.
extended perifornical area galanin-LepRb neurons galanin acts inhibitory rather than orexigenic
The results suggest that neither galanin expression, nor the galanin-dependent subpopulation of sensory neurons is required for itch-related behaviours.
Galanin transcript expression increased significantly in male mouse major pelvic ganglia neurons after 72 h in explant culture & 72 h after unilateral transection of the cavernous nerve.
results indicate normal cholinergic responses and innervation of the sweat glands in galanin knockout mice, they also demonstrate that galanin plays a role in regulating the sudomotor activity in response to thermal stimulation
GAL is a promising next-generation target for the treatment of MS.
Galanin opposes the actions of morphine which leads to opiate dependence and withdrawal, an effect that is mediated via GalR1
Subpopulations of kisspeptin neurons express galanin and met-enkephalin in the rostral periventricular region of the hypothalamus.
These data showed that the galanin system is regulated by repeated electroconvulsive stimulation in brain regions involved in monoaminergic neurotransmission and stress modulation.
examined the role of galanin signaling in nicotine reward by testing the effects of nicotine in mice lacking galanin peptide (GAL-/-) as compared to wild-type (GAL+/+) controls
Data show that PKA and PKC pathways are involved in the differential regulation of production of the neuropeptides (Met)enkephalin, galanin, somatostatin, NPY, and VIP.
elevated high expression of CASP3 or CASP8 in the neurons from MPs was accompanied by a decreased expression of GAL. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the decomposition of myenteric plexuses (MPs) within cancer-affected human stomach wall and the possible role of apoptosis in this process.
results suggested that four differentially expressed genes, Jun, Gal, Cd74, and C1qb, had the potential to serve as prognostic or predictive markers for neuropathic pain, suggesting a potential application in the improvement of prognostic tools and treatments.
Notable changes in the dense network of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript- (CART-) and galanin -containing nerve fibers (an increase) were observed in the longitudinal (LML) and lamina muscularis mucosae (LMM) within carcinoma-affected areas of the human stomach.
SNP rs948854 in the GAL gene seems to be involved in the modulation of depressive state, especially in individuals with GG genotype.
Higher serum galanin levels were determined in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.
Serum galanin (GAL) levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
Galanin per se did not affect the dynamic mass redistribution of natural killer (NK) cells, but significantly enhanced the response of NK cells to IL-18
majority of intrinsic choroidal neurons were GAL-positive
ultraviolet irradiation upregulated galanin mRNA and protein expression in keratinocytes in vitro and in human skin in vivo
GAL and its receptor GALR3 are differentially methylated and expressed in brains of major depressive disorder subjects in a region- and sex-specific manner.
Study found dramatic reduction in von Willebrand factor extrusion and multimer expression by the neuropeptide galanin in cultured endocardial endothelial cells from heart failure patients. Results suggest that a combination of beta-blockers and galanin therapy may be one therapeutic option for improving endocardial endothelial anticoagulant function.
The analyses revealed that the presence of the galanin gene minor allele (G) increased susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in men (OR = 2.49, P = 0.008) but not in women.
Study provides evidence that GAL and GALR1/2 genes were identified as aberrantly methylated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Our results identified FGL2, GAL, SEMA4D, SEMA7A, and IDO1 as new candidate genes that could be involved in MSCs-mediated immunomodulation. FGL2, GAL, SEMA4D, SEMA7A, and IDO1 genes appeared to be differentially transcribed in the different MSC populations. Moreover, these genes were not similarly modulated following MSCs-exposure to inflammatory signals
Low levels of plasma galanin is associated with obese subjects with hypertension.
results indicated that obese individuals have higher plasma GAL and GALP concentrations and both peptide concentrations were positively correlative to triglyceride concentrations in obese human
GAL and its receptors, GALR1 and GALR2, play a role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumorigenesis
Elevated galanin may predict the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus for development of Alzheimer's disease.
This study demonstrated that Galanin upregulation within the basal forebrain cholinergic system in LBD
Real-Time PCR revealed the increased expression of mRNA encoding Gal and GalR1 receptor in the pyloric wall tissue of the experimental animals, while the expression(s) of GalR2 and GalR3 were not significantly changed.
Localization of galanin, in the nerve fibers of porcine cystic ovaries
Galanin is small neuropeptide that functions as a cellular messenger within the central and peripheral nervous systems, modulating diverse physiologic functions (Mechenthaler, 2008
galanin prepropeptide, gene 2
, galanin peptides
, galanin prepropeptide
, galanin-message-associated peptide
, galanin-related peptide