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MRAP2b decreases the constitutive activity of the MC4R during fasting periods, driving the animal toward a positive energy balance.
MRAP2 proteins allow for developmental control of MC4R activity, with MRAP2a blocking its function and stimulating growth during larval development, whereas MRAP2b enhances responsiveness to alpha-MSH once the zebrafish begins feeding, thus increasing the capacity for regulated feeding and growth.
The observed prevalence of mutations causing impaired receptor function in this large cohort is comparable to other pediatric cohorts. MC4R deficiency tends to lead to a taller stature, confirming previous clinical reports. The association of MC4R mutations with a distinct phenotype concerning metabolic characteristics remains questionable.
The interaction between MC4R genes with dietary factors plays a significant role in the development of obesity or Type 2 diabetes phenotypes. [Review]
Study shows that melanocortin 4 receptor constitutive activity chronically inhibits specific subtypes of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels.
Rare functional MC4R mutation carriers exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of binge eating disorder or loss-of-control eating independent of age, sex, and BMI. Six years after bariatric surgery, the mutation carriers had more major complications than wild-type subjects independent of age, baseline BMI, sex, operation type, and weight loss.
FTO (show FTO Antibodies) and near MC4R variants are associated with obesity measures in Sri (show SRI Antibodies) Lankan populations...
Gene polymorphism rs17782313 of the MC4R gene was associated with large artery atherosclerotic stroke susceptibility in smokers. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis revealed that the combination of MC4R variant (rs17782313), hypertension and smoking habit was significantly associated with increased risk of large artery atherosclerotic stroke in a Chinese Han population.
In a large all-adult and area-based population survey the effects of obesity-promoting minor-alleles of FTO (show FTO Antibodies) and MCR4, and interactions with life style factors are age- and gender-related
the C/X genotype of the MC4R gene seems to predispose postmenopausal women to developing some metabolic syndrome symptoms
we performed a candidate-gene association study in a young and sportive Italian population by testing the association of functional polymorphisms in ACE (show ACE Antibodies) (rs4646994), FTO (show FTO Antibodies) (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313) and PPARG (show PPARG Antibodies) (rs1801282) genes with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR).
The family-based association analysis showed that there was a significant association between rs12970134 and obesity. rs12970134 near MC4R was associated with appetite and beverage intake.
Data suggest that central melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH (show TPH1 Antibodies)) are involved in the efferent neuronal control of the kidneys.
Data (including data from studies in knockout mice) suggest that expression of Mc4r in Sim1 (show SIM1 Antibodies) neurons of arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and amygdala is involved in sexual function; here, expression of Mc4r only on Sim1 (show SIM1 Antibodies) neurons reverses sexual deficits seen in Mc4r null mice. (Mc4r = melanocortin 4 receptor; Sim1 (show SIM1 Antibodies) = single-minded homolog 1 (show SIM1 Antibodies))
Thus, Mc4r in the PVH appears to be required for early-life programming of hypertension arising from either maternal obesity or neonatal hyperleptinemia. Early-life exposure of the PVH to maternal obesity through postnatal elevation of leptin (show LEP Antibodies) may have long-term consequences for cardiovascular health.
disruption of this hippocampal POMC (show POMC Antibodies)/MC4R circuit might contribute to synaptic dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease.
Loss of MC4R is associated with hepatic steatosis.
The data suggest that lipid stress disrupts steps of endocytosis following MC4R localization to clathrin-coated sites and exclusion of the receptor from the extracellular medium.
Confirmation of the impairment of GH-IGF-1 (show IGF1 Antibodies) release in hyperphagic MC4R KO mice suggests a role for insulin (show INS Antibodies) in regulating both the release of GH, but also in mediating growth during periods of physiologically suppressed GH-IGF-1 (show IGF1 Antibodies) levels
Loss of Mc4r expression is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
results identify lipocalin 2 (show LCN2 Antibodies) as a bone-derived hormone with metabolic regulatory effects, which suppresses appetite in a MC4R-dependent manner, and show that the control of appetite is an endocrine function of bone
evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MC4R with milk production traits in water buffalo. Based on the SNP data, seven haplotypes were constructed. Three SNPs H1 (AGT (show AGT Antibodies)), H2 (GAT), and H3 (GAC (show GLS Antibodies)) accounted for 93.0% of the total individuals. Statistical analysis indicated that the SNP g.1104C>T was significantly associated with milk yield, protein, and fat percentage.
The MC4R gene may thus be a candidate gene for carcass traits with MC4R single nucleotide polymorphisms being potentially valuable as genetic markers for economic traits in Hanwoo.
The aim was to estimate the frequency of the SNPs in the MC4R gene and to determine if individual genotypes were associated with several economic traits.
The results suggested that -129A>G and 1,069C>G single nucleotide polymorphism of the MC4R gene may be useful as a genetic marker for carcass and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.
results are suggestive that adrenal glucocorticoid production could be regulated through melanocortin 4 receptor
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5'-untranslated region of MC4R gene, were detected.
These results indicate that genetic selection against boar taint is possible using MC4R as a marker.
These results suggest that LEPR, MC4R, PIK3C3 and VRTN are useful markers for accurately predicting breeding values in Duroc pigs.
Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genes and pathways that responded to intracerebroventricular injection of MC4R agonist [Nle(4), d-Phe(7)]-alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (show POMC Antibodies) in pigs homozygous for the missense mutation in the MC4R.
study did not find any significant associations for polymorphisms in insulin (show INS Antibodies)-like grwoth factor 2, GTP Binding Protein (show RND1 Antibodies) alpha Subunits, Gs and melanocortin receptor 4 genes with reproductive traits of Polish Landrace and Large White pigs
Linkage disequilibrium analysis among MC4R, LEP (show LEP Antibodies) and H-FABP (show FABP3 Antibodies) revealed that these genes were independent.
The c.1426G>A polymorphism affects daily gain, feed conversion ratio and ham (show ATF7IP Antibodies) weight in both breeds, lean cuts in the Italian Duroc and backfat thickness in the Italian Large White.
MC4R allelic variants had no effects on meat quality traits.
The effects of missense mutations of MC4R on carcass composition, growth traits and meat quality in 1191 gilts of five swine breeds are reported.
No effect of the MC4R trait nucleotides could be seen on muscle growth.
Results of associated analysis show that the polymorphism of MC4R gene was associated traits of back fat thickness (BF).
The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-bound receptor and member of the melanocortin receptor family. The encoded protein interacts with adrenocorticotropic and MSH hormones and is mediated by G proteins. This is an intronless gene. Defects in this gene are a cause of autosomal dominant obesity.
melanocortin receptor 4
, melanocortin 4-receptor
, melanocortin 4 receptor
, melanocortin-4 receptor
, Melanocortin receptor 4