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Human POMC Protein expressed in Wheat germ - ABIN1315730
La Rosa, Uccella, Dainese, Marchet, Placidi, Vigetti, Capella: Characterization of c-kit (CD117) expression in human normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas. in Endocrine pathology 2008
We identify the neuronal regulatory region of zebrafish pomca and confirm that it is not homologous to the mammalian enhancers.
Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and AgRP neurons are hypophysiotropic, projecting to the pituitary to coordinately regulate multiple pituitary hormones.
cloning and characterization of the pro-opiomelanocortin gene
Zebrafish proopiomelanocortin (zfPOMC) contains the consensus sequences for ACTH, gamma-LPH, beta-MSH and beta-endorphin (beta-END). RT-PCR expression studies indicate that zfPOMC is selectively expressed in nervous tissue and in the pituitary gland.
Pituitary expression of proopiomelanocortin provides a unique marker for pituitary anterior and intermediate lobe morphogenesis.
Our results suggest that POMC neuron activity profile as well as its communication with downstream targets is significantly compromised, while AGRP neuron function with respect to short term feeding is relatively unaffected in Magel2 deficiency.
After 2 weeks of exposure, CRH and POMC were increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice. After 8 weeks of exposure, the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides were comparable between Sham and VL mice.
In vitro inhibition of miR-103/107 causes a reduction in the number of Pomc-expressing cells and increases the proportion of Pomc progenitors differentiating into NPY neurons.
POMC-specific PTP1B deficiency improved glucose tolerance and attenuated diet-induced fatty liver only in male mice and attenuated weight gain in males and females.
Authors show that renal-denervated WT and diabetic mice recapitulate the phenotype of improved glucose tolerance and elevated glycosuria associated with reduced renal GLUT2 levels observed in obese ArcPomc(-/-) mice.
Alpha - MSH enhanced leptin sensitivity and preadipocyte proliferation, meanwhile inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress of preadipocytes by activating Notch1 signal.
Glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18), an anchor protein that retains interacting proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a critical regulator of food intake and body weight by interacting with POMC. GTRAP3-18-deficient mice showed hypophagia, lean bodies, and lower blood glucose, insulin, and leptin levels with increased serum and brain alpha-MSH levels, leading to AMPK inhibition.
Immunostaining of serial sections of the hypothalamus revealed that POMC-expressing neurons were smaller in WNK1 TG mice than in WT mice.
Selenoprotein T is a novel oligosaccharyltransferase subunit that regulates unfolded protein response signaling and ACTH secretion.
Study shows that alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone and forkhead box C2 protein promote fatty acid oxidation through C/EBPbeta negative transcription in mice adipose tissue.
Our findings demonstrate alphaMSH plays a key role in the prevention of adipose inflammation and inflammatory diseases by down-regulating Akt/JNK signal pathway and negatively interacting with FoxOs, which brings up alphaMSH as a novel candidate factor in the adipose anti-inflammation process in obesity.
Data indicate the regulation of energy balance in BMPR1A-mediated appetite regulation in POMC neurons.
POMC and AgRP neurons receive direct steroid- and frequency-dependent glutamatergic synaptic input from Kiss1(ARC) neurons in male mice
Localization of the dopamine receptors of types 1 and 2 on the bodies of POMC-expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice and rats.(
disruption of this hippocampal POMC/MC4R circuit might contribute to synaptic dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease.
The data show that somatic MORs in POMC neurons couple to multiple effectors that have differential sensitivity to desensitization of the receptor.
These findings indicate that the relevance of AgRP to POMC neuron GABA connectivity depends on the state of AgRP neuron activity and suggest that different types of transmitter release should be considered when circuit mapping.
these data unmasked a role for mitochondrial fission in leptin sensitivity and glucose sensing of POMC neurons.
it is suggested that the suppression of NeuroD1 expression and the inhibition of NeuroD1/E-box interaction may play an important role in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc.
To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons.
found that POMC promoter methylation is significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers.
These findings show that POMC methylation status in the blood of children is associated with metabolic profiles. Therefore, we suggest that the DNA methylation status might serve as a potential epigenetic biomarkers of metabolic syndrome.
Herein, we summarise evidence supporting the potential candidacy in this light of alpha-melanocyte stimulatory hormone, an endogenous peptide hormone and a breakdown product of the neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin
Data suggest that the stress of intermittent hypoxia up-regulates expression of mRNA and protein for POMC and CART in neuronal cell lines; GATA2 and GATA3 appear to be involved in these stress mechanisms. (POMC = proopiomelanocortin; CART = cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein; GATA2 = endothelial transcription factor GATA-2; GATA3 = T-cell-specific transcription factor GATA-3)
Mutation in POMC gene is associated with severe obesity, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and abnormal reddish hair pigmentation.
In both melanoma cell lines, alphaMSH determined the reduction of proliferation through the PI(4,5)P2/PLC pathway, employing PPARgamma as an effector element. These evidence could offer perspectives for new therapeutic approaches for melanoma.
The human beta-endorphin amyloid was studied in detail, exploiting solid-state NMR spectroscopy and TEM analyses.
POMC and MC1R were significantly lower in vitiligo lesional skin than in non-lesional skin as well as in controls and they were significantly higher in non-lesional skin than in the skin of the controls.
POMC has played an extraordinary role in the development of molecular endo-crinology and has clearly not yet given up all its secrets.
E2F1-mediated hPOMC transcription is a potential target for suppressing ACTH production in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.
Elevated ACTH secretion is associated with Cushing's syndrome.
a novel p53/POMC/Galphas/SASH1 autoregulatory positive feedback loop is regulated by SASH1 mutations to induce pathological hyperpigmentation phenotype.
Data suggest that alpha-MSH enhances cell adhesion to fibronectin in primary mixed synoviocytes obtained from osteoarthritis patients; alpha-MSH reduces secretion of cytokines (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8) in such synoviocyte cultures.
Data suggest that the first screening step diagnosis for pituitary adenoma was determined based upon immunohistochemical (IHC) scores for Pit-1, SF-1, and ACTH.
The aim of this survey is to evaluate the association of genetic variants of melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), apolipoprotein E (APOE) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) with obesity in the North Indian population.
The expression of Pomc mRNA was stimulated in the arcuate nucleus after skin exposure to UVB.
Low circulating plasma alpha-MSH levels are associated with obesity.
hsa-miR-34a can regulate the CRH/CRHR1/POMC axis and may influence body mass index.
these common variants in PCSK1 and POMC were not the major cause of obesity in the Thai subjects sampled. However, variants in PCSK1 did affect cholesterol level, LDL-C level, and waist circumference.
ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis.
Porcine follicular cells (especially granulosa cells) may produce opioid peptides and that gonadotropins may modulate gene expression of their precursors in these cells.
The expression of the genes coding for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) in porcine luteal cells isolated from corpora lutea (CL) collected on days 3-6, 8-10 and 13-16 of the oestrous cycle is reported.
The association has been reported between polymorphisms of the CRH and POMC genes with economic traits in Korean cattle.
Expression of the hepatic endocannabinoid system and proopiomelanocortin was altered by plane of dietary energy prepartum particularly during the first 2-week postpartum.
Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04), hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02), average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05), carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03) and marbling
The polymorphism of POMC gene is associated with the growth traits of Nanyang cattle.
This gene encodes a polypeptide hormone precursor that undergoes extensive, tissue-specific, post-translational processing via cleavage by subtilisin-like enzymes known as prohormone convertases. There are eight potential cleavage sites within the polypeptide precursor and, depending on tissue type and the available convertases, processing may yield as many as ten biologically active peptides involved in diverse cellular functions. The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary where four cleavage sites are used\; adrenocorticotrophin, essential for normal steroidogenesis and the maintenance of normal adrenal weight, and lipotropin beta are the major end products. In other tissues, including the hypothalamus, placenta, and epithelium, all cleavage sites may be used, giving rise to peptides with roles in pain and energy homeostasis, melanocyte stimulation, and immune modulation. These include several distinct melanotropins, lipotropins, and endorphins that are contained within the adrenocorticotrophin and beta-lipotropin peptides. Mutations in this gene have been associated with early onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair pigmentation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described.
, adrenal corticotropic hormone
, adrenocorticotropic hormone
, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone
, corticotropin-like intermediary peptide
, melanotropin gamma
, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
, beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
, lipotropin beta
, lipotropin gamma
, melanotropin alpha
, melanotropin beta
, opiomelanocortin prepropeptide
, proopiomelanocortin preproprotein
, proopiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotropin/ beta-lipotropin/ alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-endorphin)
, proopiomelanocortin, beta (endorphin, beta)
, proopoimelanocortin, beta (endorphin, beta)
, beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone
, pro-opiomelanocortin a-1
, pro-opiomelanocortin a-2
, pro-opiomelanocortin b-1
, pro-opiomelanocortin b-2