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The StAR protein is abundantly expressed in breast cancer but not in normal mammary epithelial cells. StAR is identified as a novel acetylated protein.
Studies of mice with liver-specific deletion of Stard1 and mice with humanized livers found that upregulation of STARD1 following endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates acetaminophen hepatoxicity via SH3BP5 and phosphorylation of JNK1 and JNK2.
We further explored the dissociation of mRNA from STAR domain using umbrella sampling simulations, and the results suggest that mRNA binding to STAR domain occurs in multi-step: first conformational selection of mRNA backbone conformations, followed by induced fit mechanism as nucleobases interact with STAR domain
This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic and mutation spectrum of STAR defects and identify a founder effect of the p.Q258* mutation in Korean patients with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.
The present study revealed that StAR overexpression can reduce hepatic lipid accumulation, regulate glucose metabolism and attenuate insulin resistance through a mechanism involving the activation of FXR.
Reduced fractalkine levels were found in follicular fluid and granulosa cells, accompanied by decreased progesterone production and reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in the granulosa cells of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Administration of fractalkine reversed the inhibition of progesterone and StAR expression.
Remarkably, in terms of fluorescence response, 20NP slightly outperforms commonly used 22NC and can thus be used for screening of various potential ligands by a competition mechanism in the future.
solution structure of human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein STARD1 studied by small-angle X-ray scattering
immunohistochemical staining for StAR is a reliable pathological approach for the diagnosis and classification of adrenocortical adenomas with cAMP/PKA signaling-activating mutations.
Data suggest that expression of STAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and AKR1B10 (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10) is down-regulated in high-grade versus low-grade endometrial tumors; expression of AKR1B10 correlates with body mass index, with up-regulation of expression of AKR1B10 in obese patients with endometrial tumors.
target of the microRNA let-7, which itself is regulated by the long noncoding RNA H19
Immunostaining of CLOCK and PER2 protein was detected in the granulosa cells of dominant antral follicles but was absent in the primordial, primary, or preantral follicles of human ovaries.Oscillating expression of the circadian gene PER2 can be induced by testosterone in human granulosa cells in vitro. Expression of STAR also displayed an oscillating pattern after testosterone stimulation
Current level of understanding on tissue-specific and hormone-induced regulation of STAR expression and steroidogenesis, and insights into a number of cholesterol and/or steroid coupled physiological consequences.[review]
activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway.
amino acid of mutant position of the novel p.E123K was highly conserved in ten different species and was predicted to have impacts on the structure and function of StAR protein by the PolyPhen-2 prediction software
Mutagenesis confirmed that Arg(312) and Arg(313) are crucial for this mode of regulation, and novel interactions with the START domain
StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin.
Hypoxia in pulmonary artery endothelial cells results in upregulation of STAR protein.
BMP15 down-regulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via ALK3-mediated SMAD1/5/8 signaling.
The novel mutation p.Trp147Arg of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein causes classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia with adrenal insufficiency and 46,XY disorder of sex development.
NRF1 regulates testosterone synthesis through transcription regulation of Star.
studies suggest that miR-150 negatively regulates the expression of STAR and steroidogenesis of Leydig cells in mice
melatonin not only elevated progesterone (P) secretion, but also upregulated expressions of StAR and Cyp11a1 and also had an increased Ihh expression in endometrium.
The data suggest that STMN1 mediates the progesterone production by modulating the promoter activity of Star and Cyp11a1.
StAR may activate PPARgamma by increasing UFAs, which leads to a protective role in systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in obese mice.
ChIP results confirmed the binding of NRF1 to StAR promoter region. In conclusion, decline of NRF1 expression downregulated the level of StAR, which ultimately resulted in a reduction in testosterone synthesis.
The results demonstrated that ZnT7 gene silencing downregulated the expression of StAR, P450scc and 3beta-HSD as well as progesterone concentrations in the human chorionic gonadotrophin-stimulated Leydig tumor cells.
Chronic exposure to low-dose perfluorooctane sulfonate selectively reduces histone acetylation of StAR and suppresses the biosynthesis of E2 to impair the follicular development and ovulation.
cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci.
Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress by altering the expression of iNOS, which consequently leads to the down regulation of StAR expression in the testis of male mouse
Results show that HIF1alpha appears to be a positive regulator of basal and stimulated STAR-expression, which under partial hypoxia is capable of increasing the steroidogenic capacity of granulosa cells.
The result showed significant correlation between changes in GLUT 8 and glucose levels with changes in StAR level in the testis and circulating testosterone level in the mice from birth to senescence
Deletion of the START domain from Arabidopsis Glabra2, a representative HD-Zip transcription factor, results in a complete loss-of-function phenotype. The mammalian START domain from StAR can functionally replace the HD-Zip-derived START domain.
Despite StAR protein expression comparable to amounts seen with control animals or rescue with WT StAR, S194A StAR did not rescue the neonatal lethality and only partially rescued the sex reversal in male mice observed uniformly in StAR knockout mice.
These discoveries highlight the importance of mitochondrial fusion and ERK phosphorylation in cholesterol transport by means of directing StAR to the outer mitochondrial membrane.
Postinfarction expression of nonsteroidogenic StAR in cardiac fibroblasts has novel antiapoptotic activity.
Data indicate that macrophages exhibited a strong time-dependent induction of mitochondrial StarD1 and plasma membrane ABCA1, which exports cholesterol.
Results suggest that gonadotropins play a key role in the regulation of StAR, 17beta-HSD3, and P450aromA in zebrafish.
Data indicate that Ser738/742-to-glutamate protein kinase D mutant increased AngII-induced CREB protein and activating transcription factor 2 phosphorylation, and phospho-CREB binding to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein promoter.
Data suggest that Escherichia coli infections (here, administration of LPS) provokes luteolysis in diestrus, non-lactating cows and down-regulation of expression of StAR in corpus luteum but has no effect on luteinization in the following cycle.
The binding of SF-1 to the CYP17 and StAR promoter regions increased in theca cells incubated with low levels of luteinizing hormone.
Inhibition of the acetylation of histone H3 associated with the StAR promoter region by BMP-4 may be one of the inhibitory molecular mechanisms of progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells.
These mutant StAR proteins expressed in COS-1 cells were not cleaved at positions 39-40 and 54-55, and were processed at sites different from those in the wild-type StAR protein.
c-Fos/c-Jun complex binds to the proximal StAR promoter in glomerulosa cells, thus activating StAR gene expression and acute aldosterone biosynthesis.
current findings suggest that steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) plays an imperative role in male fertility in the pig
We found that adiponectin and insulin alone regulate the expression of StAR, CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 genes and secretion of P4 and A4 by the porcine endometrial and myometrial tissue explants during early pregnancy and the oestrous cycle.
GATA-4 and C/EBPbeta are both required for FSH +/- IGF-I stimulation of the porcine steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter in homologous granulosa cell cultures.
EGF repression of FSH-stimulated StAR transcription in porcine granulosa cells is accompanied by reductions in histone H3 acetylation associated with the StAR gene promoter
Association of the STAR gene to ovulation rate.
The altered ratio of GATA4 to GATA6 after ovulation may allow GATA6 to enhance STAR mRNA accumulation.
Under hypoxia reoxygenation or ischemia and reperfusion, StAR and CYP11A1 protein and gene expression was reduced without apparent relation to TSPO changes.
Data suggest enzymes in steroidogenic pathway are induced in interrenal cells during acute/chronic stress: mc2r (melanocortin 2 receptor); StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein); 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; steroid 11beta hydroxylase.
The results showed that MMP-2, MMP-9, and StAR were significantly expressed in the granulosa and thecal cells of the ovarian atretic follicles during proestrus, and were strongly expressed in the corpus luteum during metestrus.
The protein encoded by this gene plays a key role in the acute regulation of steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone. This protein permits the cleavage of cholesterol into pregnenolone by mediating the transport of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mutations in this gene are a cause of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), also called lipoid CAH. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 13.
START domain containing 1
, START domain-containing protein 1
, StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 1
, cholesterol trafficker
, mitochondrial steroid acute regulatory protein
, steroid acute regulatory protein
, steroidogenic acute regulator
, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial
, luteinizing hormone-induced protein
, lipid transporter
, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
, mitochondrial steroidogenic acute regulatory protein