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We propose that this local GABAergic input inhibits orexin neurons during sleep but that, during wakefulness, this input is depressed, possibly through cholinergically mediated disinhibition
Activation of orexin system facilitates anesthesia emergence and pain control.
Treatment with the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB334867 increased the activity of basolateral amygdala neurons projecting to infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex during fear extinction. GABAergic interneurons expressing calbindin, but not parvalbumin, were also activated by orexin-1 receptor antagonism in the basolateral amygdala.
Abeta and tau may be considered as novel biomarkers of sleep disorder in AD pathology, and that they function by regulating the expression levels of orexin A and adenosine A1R.
The results of this study suggested that hypocretin deficient mice may display signs of resilience to cocaine addiction.
Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (NA(LC) neurons) projecting to the lateral amygdala (LA) receive synaptic input from orexin neurons.
Hcrt loss in Hcrt(ko/ko) mice causes impaired TDW maintenance in baseline wake and blunted delta power in SWS, reproducing, respectively, narcolepsy excessive daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality
The results of this study suggest that the expression of orexin peptides precedes the maturation of electrophysiological activity of orexin neurons. The function of orexin neurons gradually matures by 3 weeks after birth.
This study demonstrated that the Neurochemical Heterogeneity Among Lateral Hypothalamic Hypocretin/Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons.
Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that linalool activated hypothalamic orexin neurons, one of the key mediators for pain processing. Formalin tests in orexin neuron-ablated and orexin peptide-deficient mice showed orexinergic transmission was essential for linalool odour-induced analgesia.
The findings of this study suggest an important role of orexin in brain areas involved in anxiety
In ORX-KO mice, the ultradian episodic changes in locomotor activity, EEG arousal indices and body temperature were significantly attenuated, but the ultradian patterning was preserved. Findings suggest that the ultradian pattern is common across species and that orexin contributes to driving ultradian episodic changes, however, this neuropeptide is not essential for ultradian pattern generation.
OXA and OX1R are expressed in the testis and that they may help in proliferation and development of germ cells, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells, and in the spermatogenic process and steroidogenesis.
Results thus suggest that type 1 diabetes mellitus impairs testicular steroidogenesis and glucose homeostasis through inhibition of orexin A/OX1R signaling cascade due to decreased OX1R expression in adult mice, thereby affecting germ cell survival and their proliferation in the testis.
Binding of OXA to OX1R is important for the development of the testis.
Results suggest that orexin A bidirectionally modulates hippocampal CA1 synaptic plasticity, inhibiting long-term potentiation via OX1Rs at moderate concentrations while inducing re-potentiation via OX1Rs and OX2Rs, possibly through phospholipase C and adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A signaling at sub-nanomolar concentrations
DYN-A(2-17) interacts with orexin A in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus to modulate food intake in mice.
Awake dynamics and brain-wide direct inputs of hypothalamic MCH and orexin/hypocretin networks have been discovered.
Histamine Transmission Modulates the Phenotype of Murine Narcolepsy Caused by Orexin Neuron Deficiency
observation that inhibition of the Orexin-1 receptor signaling blunted binge-like Ethanol, and saccharin drinking suggests that reward-related Orexin circuits participate in the consumption of salient reinforcers regardless of calories.
In summary, we revealed an important role of orexin A in the regulation of pancreatic islets biology. OxA is involved in the secretion of pancreatic hormones and prolongation of islet cell lifespan.
MBH, signal intensity for OXA was highest on days 14-16.
The impact of the phase of the estrous cycle on the observed changes in plasma orexin levels in domestic pigs.
Prepro-orexin (PPOX) mRNA abundance was approximately 15-fold higher (P<0.05) in mandibular than in the others salivary glands.
Orexin A was found in the beta cells of cattle, sheep, and swine where it may be implicated in the control of pancreatic activity.
Neuropeptides that play a significant role in the regulation of food intake and sleep-wakefulness, possibly by coordinating the complex behavioral and physiologic responses of these complementary homeostatic functions. A broader role in the homeostatic regulation of energy metabolism, autonomic function, hormonal balance and the regulation of body fluids, is also suggested. Orexin-A binds to both OX1R and OX2R with a high affinity, whereas orexin-B binds only to OX2R with a similar high affinity.
, orexin A
, orexin B