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Epidermal cells form the epidermis. It is the outermost of the three layers that together form the skin. Epidermis consists of four squamous epithelial layers, which are arranged vertically. From outside to inside these are: Cornified layer (stratum corneum), granular layer (stratum granulosum), spinous layer (stratum spinosum), basal cell layer (stratum basale).
antibodies-online offers an excellent selection of antibodies, kits and tools for the investigation of epidermal cells. Below you will find hand-picked, reliable products for some of the important targets.
The stratum corneum (SC), the horny layer of the mammalian epidermis, directly faces the external environment and protects the inner viable layers from desiccation and foreign insult. The SC consists of layers of cornified keratinocytes (corneocytes) attached to each other by corneodesmosomes, with intercellular spaces sealed with lipids. The intracellular space of corneocytes is filled with keratin filaments, filaggrin, and their degradation products.(1) Important targets are Loricrin, Involucrin, S100 proteins, Periplakin, Envoplakin.
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3-5 cell layers, contains diamond shaped cells with keratohyalin granules and lamellar granules. Keratohyalin granules contain keratin precursors that eventually aggregate, crosslink, and form bundles. The lamellar granules contain the glycolipids that get secreted to the surface of the cells and function as a glue, keeping the cells stuck together.(2) Important targets are Cytokeratin 1, Cytokeratin 2, Cytokeratin 10, Filaggrin, Transglutaminase 3.
Above the basal cell layer rest polyhedral cells which occupy larger volume and this layer is called the stratum spinosum. The tonofilaments become denser in the spinous layer than the basal cell layer. The tonofilaments turn and loop into the attachment plaque (intracellular portion of the desmosomes). The protein-synthesizing activity of the spinous cell layer is more, indicating its biochemical changes and commitment to keratinization.(3) Important targets are Transglutaminase 1, Transglutaminase 5.
The inner layer, called the basal layer (or stratum germinativum), is a germinal epithelium that gives rise to all the cells of the epidermis. The basal layer divides to give rise to another, outer population of cells that constitutes the spinous layer.(4) Important targets are Cytokeratin 5, Cytokeratin 14, Cytokeratin 15.
The following targets are directly related to research on Epidermal Cells. Search Antibodies, Kits, Reagents and other products.
(1) Kubo A, Ishizaki I, Kubo A, Kawasaki H, Nagao K, Ohashi Y, Amagai M. The stratum corneum comprises three layers with distinct metal-ion barrier properties. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1731. doi: 10.1038/srep01731. PMID: 23615774; PMCID: PMC3635058.
(2) Hani Yousef; Mandy Alhajj; Sandeep Sharma. Anatomy, Skin (Integument), Epidermis. Last Update: June 12, 2019. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470464/
(3) Deo PN, Deshmukh R. Pathophysiology of keratinization. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2018 Jan-Apr;22(1):86-91. doi: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_195_16. PMID: 29731562; PMCID: PMC5917548.
(4) Gilbert SF. Developmental Biology. 6th edition. Sunderland (MA), 2000.