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anti-Human VIPR2 Antibodies:
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Human Polyclonal VIPR2 Primary Antibody for IHC (p) - ABIN4365553
Berger, Vistisen, Barrett, Hazlett: Effects of VIP on corneal reconstitution and homeostasis following Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced keratitis. in Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2012
Human Polyclonal VIPR2 Primary Antibody for IF (p), IHC (p) - ABIN726170
Ruan, Yu, Xu, Zhang, Long, Shen: Attenuation of stress-induced gastrointestinal motility disorder by gentiopicroside, from Gentiana macrophylla Pall. in Fitoterapia 2015
a novel gene duplication syndrome (10q21.2q21.3 microduplication) and new evidence for VIPR2 duplication, as a candidate gene for autism, are reported.
Data suggest that VIPR2, which is a negative regulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation, might be a novel tumor suppressor gene in uterine leiomyosarcomas.
The 'CC' genotype of the VIPR2 gene was nominally associated with an increased risk of SCZ in male Han Chinese patients.
In vitro-polarized macrophages by GM-CSF (GM-MO), with a proinflammatory profile, expressed higher levels of VIP receptors, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptors 1 and 2 (VPAC1 and VPAC2, respectively), than macrophages polarized by M-CSF (M-MO) with anti-inflammatory activities. RA synovial macrophages, according to their GM-CSF-like polarization state, expressed both VPAC1 and VPAC2.
Lower CpG methylation of VIPR2 in the saliva of children with ADHD.
The results reveal that more severe inflammation, based on high levels of IL-6, is associated with lower expression of VPAC1 and, conversely, with increased expression of VPAC2.
CD4+ T cells in HIV infection show increased levels of expression of VPAC2
This study suggest that carriers of microduplication genotypes of VIPR2 are predisposed to SCZ in Han Chinese.
Monocytes from Sjogren's syndrome patients display increased vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 expression and impaired apoptotic cell phagocytosis.
Data indicate that VIP and PACAP increased macrophage resistance to HIV-1 replication by inducing the synthesis of beta-chemokines CCL3 and CCL5 and IL-10 following preferential activation of the receptors VPAC2 and PAC1.
This is the first study to suggest a role of VIPR2 in the genetic susceptibility to high myopia. EGR1, JUN, FOS and VIP are unlikely to be important in predisposing humans to high myopia.
Genetic testing for VIPR2-LCR-associated inversions should be performed on available cohorts of psychiatric patients to evaluate their potential pathogenic role
Conclude that VPAC2/PAC1 receptors require NO in series to effect cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans.
PACAP causes PAC1/VPAC2 receptor mediated hypertension and sympathoexcitation in normal and hypertensive rats.
The overexpression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and COX-2 in cancer tissue gives them a potential role as targets for diagnosis of prostate cancer.
mRNA expression of the VPAC1 receptor was detected in 51% of the tumor specimens, while the incidence of mRNA expression for VPAC2 was 46%.
increased expression in patients with allergic rhinitis
gene expression level and cAMP signaling of VIPR2 were increased in patients carrying 7q36.3 microduplications, thus implicating VIPR2 in the etiology of schizophrenia.[review]
VPAC(2) receptor presents an extranuclear localization and its protein expression is lower than that of VPAC(1) receptor in human breast tissue samples
VPAC2 and/or PAC1 receptor activation is involved in cutaneous active vasodilation in humans.
Findings suggest that the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 plays an important role in the fear extinction processes and the regulation of the dendritic morphology in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices.
PACAP/PAC1 signaling is important for light regulated behavior, VIP/VPAC2 signaling for stable clock function and both signaling pathways may play a role in shaping diurnality versus nocturnality.
Results demonstrate critical protective roles for PACAP and the VPAC2 receptor against autoimmunity, promoting the expansion and maintenance of the Treg pool.
The results suggest that caveolin-1 plays an important role in VPAC2 receptor internalization and desensitization.
Cumulus cells express PACAP and its receptors PAC1-R and VPAC2-R.
VPAC2R mRNA expression showed a nonsignificant tendency to increase on day 7 after ischemia induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion.
The loss of adrenal clock gene rhythm in the VPAC2 receptor knockout mice after transfer into constant darkness was accompanied by disappearance of rhythmicity in Star mRNA expression and serum corticosterone concentration.
Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis significantly decreased VPAC2 receptor expression in the urothelium & detrusor of both WT and NGF-OE mice
The circadian clock, not ambient light level, regulates Vipr2 protein localization, since VAPC2R plays a role in signaling at all times of day.
Data support the notion that both VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors are dynamically regulated by Ikaros, a master transcriptional regulator for thymocyte differentiation, during early thymic development.
results support that decline in VIP/VPAC local levels may influence survival/apoptosis intracellular set point in NOD acinar cells and their clearance, contributing to gland homeostasis loss in a model of Sjogren's syndrome
Toll-like receptor 4 and 5 stimulation differentially regulates vasoactive intestinal peptide type 2 receptor in macrophages
while the main rhythm parameters of extra-SCN circadian oscillations are maintained in Vipr2(-/-) mice, the ability of these oscillators to resist phase shifts is compromised
Cellular synchrony in electrical firing rates was lost in suprachiasmatic nucleus slices lacking the VPAC2 receptor for VIP.
the VIP/VPAC2 system induces reactive astrocytosis and plays a key role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in neurological disorders
The absence of VPAC2 leads to aberrant antibody production in Aspergillus fumigatus sensitized and challenged mice
VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity. VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters under constant light/darknessconditions.
Data describe PACAP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2 transcripts or protein expression in urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle and lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia in NGF-overexpressing and wildtype mice.
absence of VPAC(2) does not protect mice from developing the signs and symptoms of allergic asthma.
VIP and its receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2) were identified in type II taste cells of the taste bud, and VIP knockout mice exhibit enhanced taste preference to sweet tastants.
Study found a protective effect of PACAP-38 on oxidative stress damage in zebrafish hair cells, suggesting PACAP-38 ability to prevent hair cells from apoptosis. PACAP-38 treatment decreased the cleaved caspase-3 level in the hair cells, but somewhat unexpectedly had no influence on p-38 MAPK pathway. PACAP-38 treatment also rescued H2O2-induced reduction in movement.
PACAP might play dual roles in regulating follicle growth and maturation through different receptors located in different compartments.
These results suggest that, in fish, PACAP and PAC1-R may play a role in brain development.
The temporal and spatial expression pattern of the ghrh-pacap1 transcript suggests that these hormones may modulate patterning during development.
zfPACAP38-2 is a potential ovarian factor that mediates gonadotropin actions in paracrine/autocrine manners, and its functional roles are likely, to some extent, related to the ovarian activin/follistatin system.
Splice variants of pVPAC1-R are predominantly expressed in all tissues instead of the transcript encoding the full-length receptor, hinting that pVPAC2-R may play more important roles than pVPAC1-R in mediating VIP and PACAP actions.
This gene encodes a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide, a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase.
PACAP type III receptor
, VIP and PACAP receptor 2
, helodermin-preferring VIP receptor
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type III receptor
, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 2
, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2
, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor type 2
, VIP receptor subtype 2
, VPAC2 receptor
, vasopressive intestinal peptide receptor 2
, histidine-isoleucine receptor
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide
, vasoactive intestingal polypeptide receptor type 2
, VIP-specific receptor
, gastric VPAC2 receptor
, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 2-like
, vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor 2