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Human CDK5 Protein expressed in Wheat germ - ABIN1348956
Seo, Kim, Bae, Soh, Lee: Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of c-Myc on Ser-62 is essential in transcriptional activation of cyclin B1 by cyclin G1. in The Journal of biological chemistry 2008
Apoptosis in breast cancer cells due to Cdk5 loss occurs via a novel mPTP-dependent mechanism that acts primarily through Reactive oxygen species increase.
CDK5 SNPs are associated with inattention, domain specific impulsivity, behavioral problem, cognitive function and co-morbidity in ADHD.
A decrease in CDK5 and MAPT gene expression was found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients' brains, significant differences were found in CDK5 expression in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. In both cases, mRNA was lower in the AD group); however, the same analysis using the MAPT gene revealed no significant statistical differences.
Study discovered a new mechanism of regulation of CDK5 through loss of CDCP1, which dynamically regulates beta1-integrin in non-adherent cells and which may promote vascular dissemination in patients with advanced prostate cancer.
Authors identified and validated cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as the targeting gene of ARNTL by dual Luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.
Study finds that CDK5, 14-3-3 epsilon, and KIAA0528 are all essential for cytoplasmic dynein force adaptation and that they regulate the transport of lipid droplets, lysosomes, and mitochondria.
Study is the first to report that PP2A may affect metastasis by interacting with CDK5 in gastric cancer (GC) and that low levels of PP2A may indicate a tendency for poor prognosis in patients with GC.
Result show that CDK5 mediates the phosphorylation of XBP1 at residue Ser61.
Our findings demonstrate that TRPA1 is a substrate of Cdk5 and that Cdk5 activity is also able to modulate TRPA1 agonist-induced calcium influx and chemo-nociceptive behavioral responses.
High CDK5 expression is associated with Parkinson's disease.
Here the authors show that cyclin I-like (CCNI2), a homolog of CCNI, interacts with CDK5 and activates the kinase activity of CDK5. Different from CCNI, which colocalizes with CDK5 in the nuclei in transfected cells, CCNI2 mainly retains CDK5 in the cytoplasm as well as on the cell membrane.
Methamphetamine can impair the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway and induce neuronal apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is mainly mediated by abnormal CDK5-regulated Tau phosphorylation.
Mcl-1 is a disease-specific target of Cdk5, which associates with Cdk5 under basal conditions, but is not regulated by it.
Stress-induced nuclear translocation of CDK5 suppresses neuronal death by downregulating ERK activation via VRK3 phosphorylation
these results demonstrate an important role for miR-26a and CDK5 together in the survival and growth of Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells.
In this review various possible mechanisms by which deregulated CDK5 may alter synaptic transmission and possibly lead to epileptogenesis have been discussed. Further, CDK5 has been proposed as a potential biomarker as well as a pharmacological target for developing treatments for epilepsy.
Results show that Cdk5 is dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease which suggests an early role in neuronal cell death. Also, Cdk5 activation is under the action of Prx5 via reactive oxygen species-mediated Ca2+-mediated calpain activation.
axonal impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy may be mediated by NMDAR via GSK-3beta and Cdk5. In addition, inhibiting either NMDARs or GSK-3beta lowered the relative tau phosphorylation level by reversing the decrease of total tau without affecting phosphorylated tau S396 and T231.
In this review, we discuss the contribution of Cdk5 to molecular mechanisms that confer upon tumors the ability to grow, proliferate, and disseminate to secondary organs, as well as resistance to chemotherapies. We subsequently discuss existing and new strategies for targeting Cdk5 and its downstream mechanisms as anticancer treatments.[Review]
Inhibition of CDK5 in endothelial or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells reduced HIF-1alpha levels in vitro and in vivo.
results show that a Nestin-Cdk5-Drp1 axis negatively regulates mitochondrial OXPHOS, which is indispensable for the maintenance of NSPC stemness.
data indicate that Drp1 is a direct target of Cdk5, and Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 at Serine 579 regulates Abeta1-42 induced mitochondrial fission and neuronal toxicity.
Cdk5 downstream targets involved in memory and learning decline differ depending on the brain region analyzed suggesting that distinct Cdk5 effectors could be involved in cognitive impairments in Huntington's disease.
The novel roles of Cdk5 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells may provide insights for helping understand the cognitive changes sometimes seen in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis
these results indicate that phosphorylation of CHIP at Ser20 by Cdk5 activation inhibits CHIP-mediated truncated apoptosis-inducing factor (tAIF) degradation, thereby contributing to tAIF-induced neuronal cell death following rotenone treatment
Identification of candidate lncRNAs regulated by Cdk5 in mouse skin.
These results of this study suggest that a physiological role of Cdk5 in visual cortex is to consolidate and stabilize neural circuits through controlling GABAergic signaling.
Selective loss of Cdk5 in dorsolateral striatum increased locomotor activity and attenuated motor learning.
CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of Sirt2 has a role in to depressive-like behavior induced by social defeat stress
findings collectively demonstrate that the Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of liprinalpha1 is important for the postsynaptic organization during activity-dependent synapse development.
Study generated Purkinje cell-specific p35; p39 double knockout, L7cre-p35f/f; p39-/- mice and found there were ectopic Purkinje cells scattered singly or in groups over the cerebellar cortex due to Cdk5-loss-dependent migration failure. Selective loss of Cdk5 activity in Purkinje cells contributed to motor impairments. TrkB agonist treatment partially rescued Purkinje cell morphological defects of dendritic structures.
hyperactivation of p25 may temporarily enhance neural progenitor cell proliferation, but impair their long-term survival
Cdk5 directly phosphorylates Cx43, which regulates the membrane localization and degradation of Cx43 in neurons.
Cdk5 may play an important role in endoplasmic reticulum stress induced podocyte apoptosis through MEKK1/JNK pathway in diabetic nephropathy.
conditional inactivation of Cdk5 in the jck mice significantly attenuates cystic disease progression and is associated with shortening of ciliary length as well as restoration of cellular differentiation. Our results suggest that CDK5 may regulate ciliary length by affecting tubulin dynamics via its substrate collapsin response mediator protein 2.
Silencing of CDK5 increased BDNF expression, temporarily increased phosphorylation of CaMKII, ERK, and CREB; and facilitated calcium signaling in neurites. Together, these data suggest that CDK5 downregulation induces synaptic plasticity in mature neurons involving Ca(2+) signaling and BDNF/CREB activation.
we report a key role for Cdk5 activity in the development of allogeneic T-cell responses after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
Cdk5 regulates axon outgrowth through the GRAB-mediated Rab8-Rab11 cascade.
These data indicate that Cdk5 is required to maintain the protective role of basal autophagy in the initial responses to a subset of neurodegenerative challenges via phosphorylating Acinus at serine 437.
These data show that Cdk5 regulates the onset and extent of remodeling of the Drosophila mushroom body.
The CDK5 phosphorylates MEKK1, and together, they activate the JNK pathway for apoptosis.
The data of this study demonstrated that Cdk5/p35 kinase is a key regulator of the development and maintenance of the axon initial segment in Drosophila.
Therefore, we propose that Abl and p35/p25 cooperate in promoting Cdk5-pY15, which deregulates Cdk5 activity and subcellular localization in Abeta42-triggered neurodegeneration.
Cdk5/p35 did not have major effects on tau toxicity or phosphorylation.
In Drosophila the cdk5 is needed for locomotive behavior and NMJ elaboration.
data indicate that PP1alpha is a downstream target of the NGF/Egr-1/Cdk5 pathway during NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells and suggest that PP1 phosphorylation promotes neuronal differentiation
The intrahepatic biliary network is a highly branched three-dimensional network lined by biliary epithelial cells. We designed a new computer-based algorithm that quantitatively computes the structural differences of the three-dimensional networks. Utilizing the algorithm, we showed that inhibition of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) led to reduced branching in the intrahepatic biliary network.
These results suggest that the phosphorylation of Dpysl2 and Dpysl3 by Cdk5 and DYRK2 is required for the proper positioning of Rohon-Beard neurons and neural crest cells during neurulation in zebrafish embryos.
cdk5 mRNA was injected into the one- to two-cell embryos, in which neuron apoptosis was inhibited compared with the uninjected control embryos.
we have cloned and characterized the zebrafish cdk5 ortholog. Zebrafish cdk5 is 96% identical to its human counterpart and expressed as early as the blastula stage.
cdk5 plays a critical role in spinal and cranial motor neuron development.
CDK5-mediated hyperphosphorylation of SIRT1 facilitates the development of endothelial senescence and atherosclerosis.
CDK5 mRNA reaches the highest level in cerebral cortex at two months of age and in cerebellum and liver at 4 months of age, respectively, whereas the peak level of CDK5R1 was observed in both cerebral cortex and cerebellum at two months of age
CDK-5 regulates DCV polarity by both promoting DCV trafficking in axons and preventing dynein-dependent DCV trafficking into dendrites.
Cdk-5 facilitates new synapse formation by regulating the transport of synaptic vesicles to the sites of synaptogenesis.
CDK-5 promotes the anterograde trafficking of GLR-1 and that phosphorylation of LIN-10 may play a role in this process.
Proline-directed serine/threonine-protein kinase essential for neuronal cell cycle arrest and differentiation and may be involved in apoptotic cell death in neuronal diseases by triggering abortive cell cycle re-entry. Interacts with D1 and D3- type G1 cyclins. Phosphorylates SRC, NOS3, VIM/vimentin, p35/CDK5R1, MEF2A, SIPA1L1, SH3GLB1, PXN, PAK1, MCAM/MUC18, SEPT5, SYN1, DNM1, AMPH, SYNJ1, CDK16, RAC1, RHOA, CDC42, TONEBP/NFAT5, MAPT/TAU, MAP1B, histone H1, p53/TP53, HDAC1, APEX1, PTK2/FAK1, huntingtin/HTT, ATM, MAP2, NEFH and NEFM. Regulates several neuronal development and physiological processes including neuronal survival, migration and differentiation, axonal and neurite growth, synaptogenesis, oligodendrocytes differentiation, synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission, by phosphorylating key proteins. Activated by interaction with CDK5R1 (p35) and ATP6V0D1 (p39), especially in post-mitotic neurons, and promotes CDK5R1 (p35) expression in an autostimulation loop. Phosphorylates many downstream substrates such as Rho and Ras family small GTPases (e.g. PAK1, RAC1, RHOA, CDC42) or microtubule-binding proteins (e.g. MAPT/TAU, MAP2, MAP1B), and modulates actin dynamics to regulate neurite growth and/or spine morphogenesis. Phosphorylates also exocytosis associated proteins such as MCAM/MUC18, SEPT5, SYN1, and PCTAIRE 1/CDK16 as well as endocytosis associated proteins such as DNM1, AMPH and SYNJ1 at synaptic terminals. In the mature central nervous system (CNS), regulates neurotransmitter movements by phosphorylating substrates associated with neurotransmitter release and synapse plasticity\; synaptic vesicle exocytosis, vesicles fusion with the presynaptic membrane, and endocytosis. Promotes cell survival by activating anti-apoptotic proteins BCL2 and STAT3, and negatively regulating of JNK3/MAPK10 activity. Phosphorylation of p53/TP53 in response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses enhances its stabilization by preventing ubiquitin ligase-mediated proteasomal degradation, and induces transactivation of p53/TP53 target genes, thus regulating apoptosis. Phosphorylation of p35/CDK5R1 enhances its stabilization by preventing calpain-mediated proteolysis producing p25/CDK5R1 and avoiding ubiquitin ligase-mediated proteasomal degradation. During aberrant cell-cycle activity and DNA damage, p25/CDK5 activity elicites cell-cycle activity and double-strand DNA breaks that precedes neuronal death by deregulating HDAC1. DNA damage triggered phosphorylation of huntingtin/HTT in nuclei of neurons protects neurons against polyglutamine expansion as well as DNA damage mediated toxicity. Phosphorylation of PXN reduces its interaction with PTK2/FAK1 in matrix-cell focal adhesions (MCFA) during oligodendrocytes (OLs) differentiation. Negative regulator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Activator of the GAIT (IFN-gamma-activated inhibitor of translation) pathway, which suppresses expression of a post-transcriptional regulon of proinflammatory genes in myeloid cells\; phosphorylates the linker domain of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS) in a IFN-gamma- dependent manner, the initial event in assembly of the GAIT complex. Phosphorylation of SH3GLB1 is required for autophagy induction in starved neurons. Phosphorylation of TONEBP/NFAT5 in response to osmotic stress mediates its rapid nuclear localization. MEF2 is inactivated by phosphorylation in nucleus in response to neurotoxin, thus leading to neuronal apoptosis. APEX1 AP-endodeoxyribonuclease is repressed by phosphorylation, resulting in accumulation of DNA damage and contributing to neuronal death. NOS3 phosphorylation down regulates NOS3-derived nitrite (NO) levels. SRC phosphorylation mediates its ubiquitin- dependent degradation and thus leads to cytoskeletal reorganization. May regulate endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis via the modulation of lamellipodia formation. Involved in dendritic spine morphogenesis by mediating the EFNA1- EPHA4 signaling.
TPKII catalytic subunit
, cell division protein kinase 5
, protein kinase CDK5 splicing
, serine/threonine-protein kinase PSSALRE
, tau protein kinase II catalytic subunit
, CR6 protein kinase
, proline-directed protein kinase 33 kDa subunit
, neuronal cyclin-dependent kinase 5
, Cell division protein kinase 5
, cyclin-dependent-like kinase 5