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In the absence of geminin, limited pre-replicative complex assembly was restricted to the heterochromatin by elevated cyclin A (show CCNA2 Proteins)-CDK (show CDK4 Proteins) activity.
Gem and Brm (show SMARCA2 Proteins) act antagonistically to modulate the EGFR (show EGFR Proteins)-Ras-MAPK (show MAPK1 Proteins) signaling pathway, by affecting Mek (show MAP2K1 Proteins) levels during Drosophila development
In cycling cells, Dup (show CDT1 Proteins) destruction is coupled to DNA replication and that increased levels of Gem balance elevated Dup (show CDT1 Proteins) levels to prevent pre-replicative complex reformation when Dup (show CDT1 Proteins) degradation fails.
Down-regulation of APC (show APC Proteins)/C activity results in stabilization of Geminin protein and blocks endocycle progression.
results demonstrate that geminin is required for proper Kupffer's vesicle formation and ciliogenesis, thus playing an important part in setting up left-right asymmetry.
Results from a dual-luciferase assay in HEK293 cells showed that ZDND increases the translation of geminin
These results provide proof-of-principle that preventing geminin function could prevent malignancy in tumors derived from pluripotent cells by selectively eliminating the progenitor cells with little harm to normal cells.
cell penetrating (CP) Geminin is imported into the nucleus after incorporation and also the incorporated CP-Geminin directly interacted with Cdt1 (show CDT1 Proteins) or Brahma (show SMARCA2 Proteins)/Brg1 (show SMARCA4 Proteins) as the same manner as Geminin
Study shows that ablation of Geminin induces massive rereplication as a result of unrestrained Cdt1 (show CDT1 Proteins) activity in embryonic stem cells, whereas it has no such effect in embryonic fibroblasts in which alternative regulation of Cdt1 (show CDT1 Proteins) activity is intact.
Maternal geminin does not regulate oogenesis and oocyte meiotic maturation, but it does control accurate DNA replication and timely cleavage of fertilized eggs.
Regulation of gene expression by geminin occurs only after pluripotent cells differentiate into cells in which geminin is not essential for viability.
Geminin is an important regulator of self-renewal and survival of enteric nervous system progenitor cells.
geminin is indispensable for fetal hematopoiesis and regulates the generation of a physiological pool of stem and progenitor cells in the fetal hematopoietic system.
these data demonstrate a requirement for Geminin for neural tube patterning and neuronal differentiation during mammalian neurulation in vivo.
geminin is required for Sox2 (show SOX2 Proteins) expression, and thus for the maintenance of totipotency, pluripotency and the early neural lineage.
geminin acts both like a component of the FGF4 (show FGF4 Proteins) signal transduction pathway that governs trophoblast proliferation and differentiation, and geminin is required to maintain endocycles.
these data identify DUB3 (show USP17L2 Proteins) and USP7 (show USP7 Proteins) as factors that regulate DNA replication by controlling Geminin protein stability, and suggest that USP7 (show USP7 Proteins) may be involved in Geminin dysregulation during breast cancer progression.
geminin selectively couples the transcription factor forkhead box O3 (FoxO3 (show FOXO3 Proteins)) to HDAC3 (show HDAC3 Proteins), thereby specifically facilitating FoxO3 (show FOXO3 Proteins) deacetylation.
summarize current information on the molecular functions of Geminin and the regulatory system for Geminin protein expression, and argue for the molecular role of Geminin in cell fate determination of hematopoietic stem cells [review]
Studies indicate that geminin expression is associated with different types of cancer.
High geminin expression is associated with breast cancer.
De novo GMNN mutations cause autosomal-dominant primordial dwarfism associated with Meier-Gorlin syndrome.
Elevated Ki67 (show MKI67 Proteins) and geminin expression distinguish a fraction of metastatic breast carcinoma with worse prognosis.
These findings suggest that E2F (show E2F1 Proteins)-mediated activation of Geminin transcription is negatively regulated by Geminin through the inhibition of chromatin remodeling.
Bound Geminin prevents transition of the pre-replicative complexes to a state that is competent for initiation of DNA replication.
This gene encodes a protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein inhibits DNA replication by binding to DNA replication factor Cdt1, preventing the incorporation of minichromosome maintenance proteins into the pre-replication complex. The encoded protein is expressed during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex during the metaphase-anaphase transition. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in several malignancies including colon, rectal and breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and two pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosome 16.
, geminin protein
, geminin, DNA replication inhibitor