Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) in Adaptive Immune Response

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) comprises a number of genes that occur in many species. The encoded proteins help the immune system to tell the body's own proteins apart from those of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans. In humans, MHC proteins are encoded by the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), a group of more than 200 genes located closely together on the short arm of chromosome 6. Class I HLAs present peptides from inside the cell whereas class II HLAs present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. A third cluster of HLAs (class III HLAs), situated between class I and class II HLAs, encodes components of the complement system and is not involved in the adaptive immune response.

Classical class I and class II Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) are leading candidates for infectious disease susceptibility. Many observations point to a major role for classical HLA loci in determining susceptibility to viral infections1. A recent study shows that individuals with the allele HLA-B*46:01 have the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting they may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, as they were previously shown to be for SARS. A different allele, HLA-B*15:03, showed the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting it could enable cross-protective T-cell based immunity. 2 These observations point towards a potential influence of different HLA composition - the haplotype - in the present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Association of various HLA haplotypes with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 could improve assessment of viral severity in the population. Thus, it could allow strategizing prevention, treatment, vaccination, and optimizing clinical approaches3.

Additional SARS-CoV-2 Resources:


  1. Blackwell, Jamieson, Burgner (2009) "HLA and infectious diseases" Clin Microbiol Rev.; 22(2):370-85
  2. Nguyen et al. (2020) "Human leukocyte antigen susceptibility map for SARS-CoV-2"; medRxiv
  3. Shi et al. (2020) "COVID-19 infection: the perspectives on immune responses" Cell Death Differ. (ePrint)

HLA Class I Genes

Antigens in this category:
HLA-A (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, A): HLA-A antibodies HLA-A ELISA Kits HLA-A Proteins
HLA-B (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, B): HLA-B antibodies HLA-B ELISA Kits HLA-B Proteins
HLA-C - Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I C: HLA-C antibodies HLA-C ELISA Kits HLA-C Proteins
HLAE - HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain E: HLAE antibodies HLAE ELISA Kits HLAE Proteins
HLAF - HLA Class I alpha F: HLAF antibodies HLAF ELISA Kits HLAF Proteins
HLAG - HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G: HLAG antibodies HLAG ELISA Kits HLAG Proteins

HLA Class II Genes 

Antigens in this category:
HLA-DRA - HLA Class II DR alpha: HLA-DRA antibodies HLA-DRA ELISA Kits HLA-DRA Proteins
HLA-DRB1 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR beta 1): HLA-DRB1 antibodies HLA-DRB1 ELISA Kits HLA-DRB1 Proteins
HLA-DRB3 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR beta 3): HLA-DRB3 antibodies   HLA-DRB3 Proteins
HLA-DRB4 - Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR beta 4: HLA-DRB4 antibodies   HLA-DRB4 Proteins
HLA-DRB5 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR beta 5): HLA-DRB5 antibodies HLA-DRB5 ELISA Kits HLA-DRB5 Proteins
HLA-DQA1 - Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DQ alpha 1: HLA-DQA1 antibodies   HLA-DQA1 Proteins
HLA-DQB1 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DQ beta 1): HLA-DQB1 antibodies HLA-DQB1 ELISA Kits HLA-DQB1 Proteins
HLA-DPA1 - Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DP alpha 1: HLA-DPA1 antibodies   HLA-DPA1 Proteins
HLA-DPB1 (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DP beta 1): HLA-DPB1 antibodies   HLA-DPB1 Proteins
HLA-DMA - Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DM alpha: HLA-DMA antibodies HLA-DMA ELISA Kits HLA-DMA Proteins
HLA-DMB (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DM beta): HLA-DMB antibodies   HLA-DMB Proteins
HLA-DOA (HLA Class II DO alpha): HLA-DOA antibodies   HLA-DOA Proteins
HLA-DOB (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DO beta): HLA-DOB antibodies   HLA-DOB Proteins

HLA Class I Pseudogenes 

Antigens in this category:
HLA-H (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, H (Pseudogene)): HLA-H antibodies    

Other Genes within the MHC 

Antigens in this category:
MICA (MHC Class I Polypeptide-Related Sequence A): MICA antibodies MICA ELISA Kits MICA Proteins
MICB (MHC Class I Polypeptide-Related Sequence B): MICB antibodies MICB ELISA Kits MICB Proteins
TAP1 (Transporter 1, ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B (MDR/TAP)): TAP1 antibodies TAP1 ELISA Kits TAP1 Proteins
TAP2 (Transporter 2, ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B (MDR/TAP)): TAP2 antibodies TAP2 ELISA Kits TAP2 Proteins