Synonyms: CD209 antigen, C-type lectin domain family 4 member L, Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin 1, DC-SIGN, DC-SIGN1, CD209, CD209, CLEC4L
Tissue Specificity: Predominantly expressed in dendritic cells and in DC-residing tissues. Also found in placental macrophages, endothelial cells of placental vascular channels, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and THP-1 monocytes.
Background: DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin) also known as CD209 (Cluster of Differentiation 209) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD209 gene. This gene encodes a transmembrane receptor and is often referred to as DC-SIGN because of its expression on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages. The encoded protein is involved in the innate immune system and recognizes numerous evolutionarily divergent pathogens ranging from parasites to viruses with a large impact on public health. The protein is organized into three distinct domains: an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a tandem-repeat neck domain and C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The extracellular region consisting of the C-type lectin and neck domains has a dual function as a pathogen recognition receptor and a cell adhesion receptor by binding carbohydrate ligands on the surface of microbes and endogenous cells. The neck region is important for homo-oligomerization which allows the receptor to bind multivalent ligands with high avidity. Variations in the number of 23 amino acid repeats in the neck domain of this protein are rare but have a significant impact on ligand binding ability. This gene is closely related in terms of both sequence and function to a neighboring gene. DC-SIGN and L-SIGN differ in their ligand-binding properties and distribution. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants.Cellular Localisation: Isoform 1: Cell membrane, Single-pass type II membrane protein.