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Transitions between different conformational states of the G protein-coupled pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor (PAC1R) range between microseconds to milliseconds.
that perturbations in the PACAP-PAC1R pathway may be involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology
These results show that b-arrestin1 and b-arrestin2 exert differential actions on PAC1R internalization and PAC1R-dependent ERK1/2 activation, and suggest that the two b-arrestin isoforms may be involved in fine and precise tuning of the PAC1R signaling pathways.
Studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders. [Review Article]
These results provide evidence for an association between ADCYAP1R1 and PTSD and indicate that there may indeed be sex differences.
These findings lead to a model in which E2 induces the expression of ADCYAP1R1 through binding of ERalpha at the ERE as an adaptive response to stress. Inhibition of E2/ERalpha binding to the ERE containing the rs2267735 risk allele results in reduced expression of ADCYAP1R1, diminishing estrogen regulation as an adaptive stress response and increasing risk for PTSD.
Data suggest that GCGR (glucagon receptor) activation proceeds via a mechanism in which transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) is held in an inactive conformation by a conserved polar core and a hydrophobic lock (involving intracellular loop 3, IC3); mutations in the corresponding polar core of GCGR or PAC1R disrupt these inhibitory elements, allow TM6 to swing outward, and induce constitutive G protein signaling.
Results confirmed for the first time that doxycycline specially targeted pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type 1 (PAC1) imitating PACAP(30-37) and acted as an enhancer by facilitating the subsequent ligand binding and the activation of PAC1.
Rsults suggest that impaired contextual conditioning in the hippocampal formation may mediate the association between type I receptor of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptideand and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.
Data show that glucocorticoid response genes NR3C1, ADCYAP1R1 and HSD11B2 were relatively hypomethylated whereas FKBP5 was hypermethylated.
Further investigations of genetic factors for trauma-related psychopathology should include careful assessments of the social environment
High child stress and an ADCYAP1R1 single-nucleotide polymorphism are associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.
and its receptor (PAC1) are involved in stress response and anxiety.
association of variants with sudden infant death not supported
PAC1/PACAP receptor endocytosis contributes to ERK acktivation.
This review focuses on role of PAC1 receptor in brain development, behavior of transgenic animals and potential implication in human neurodevelopmental disorders.
PAC1 receptor (ADCYAP1R1) genotype is associated with dark-enhanced startle in both male and female children.
Individual differences in ADCYAP1R1 genotype may contribute to dysregulated fear circuitry known to play a central role in posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders.
Data indicate that VIP and PACAP increased macrophage resistance to HIV-1 replication by inducing the synthesis of beta-chemokines CCL3 and CCL5 and IL-10 following preferential activation of the receptors VPAC2 and PAC1.
The findings suggest that the PACAP-PAC1 receptor pathway may play an important role in female human responses to traumatic stress
PACAP/PAC1 signaling is important for light regulated behavior, VIP/VPAC2 signaling for stable clock function and both signaling pathways may play a role in shaping diurnality versus nocturnality.
Its signaling evokes long-lasting nociceptive behaviors through the activation of spinal astrocytes.
The results suggested that sympathetic nerve innervation may be responsible for Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-regulated hematopoiesis in bone marrow, mainly via PAC1.
spinal astrocytic activation triggered by the PAC1 receptor stimulation contributes to both induction and maintenance of the long-term mechanical allodynia.
PACAP/PAC1 signaling has a role in light regulated food anticipatory activity
PAC1 plays a prominent role in chronic restraint stress response, but less so in the acute restraint stress response.
overexpression of Pac1 rescued the Zac1 knockdown neuronal migration phenotype
PAC1 has ligand-independent and dimer-dependent intrinsic/basal activity, conferring cells with anti-apoptotic activities against serum withdrawal, which is involved in the Wnt/beta-catenin signal and is associated with the endocytosis of PAC1 dimers.
PACAP and PAC1-R expression increased in cumulus cells isolated at different times after treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin.
These results suggest that Sp1 cross-linking might be crucial in negative regulation of PAC1 gene expression due to TG2 in OGD-induced ER stress.
This study demonistrated that pac1r expression in reactive astrocytes induced by global brain ischemia in mice.
PAC1R mRNA expression in the hippocampus was significantly elevated on day 7 after ischemia induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. .
PAC1R transcript expression exhibited differential responses in NGF-OE mice that were tissue (urothelium vs. detrusor) cyclophosphamide-induced-cystitis duration-dependent.
We conclude that PACAP/PAC1R signaling is involved in the sustained phase of the pupillary light reflex at high irradiances.
current results show that the action of GnRH in the regulation of gonadotropin subunit expression is enhanced by the presence of PAC1Rs
Increased PAC1R mRNA expression in lung tissue was present under inflammatory conditions
Results indicate that the expression of PAC1 is clearly important for maintaining the homeostasis of gastric acid secretion.
Data describe PACAP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2 transcripts or protein expression in urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle and lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia in NGF-overexpressing and wildtype mice.
data suggest that perturbations in the PACAP-PAC1 pathway are involved in abnormal stress responses underlying post-traumatic stress disorder
PACAP may therefore function through PAC1 receptors to protect neurons from cell death during inflammatory cytokine release
These results suggest that, in fish, PACAP and PAC1-R may play a role in brain development.
signal pathways, transcript distribution, and splice variants are investigated
This gene encodes type I adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor, which is a membrane-associated protein and shares significant homology with members of the glucagon/secretin receptor family. This receptor mediates diverse biological actions of adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 and is positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified.
PACAP receptor 1
, PACAP type I receptor
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptor type I Hiphop
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor
, type I adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor
, PACAP type IA receptor
, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I
, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 type 1 receptor
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptor (1)
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type IA receptor
, PAC1 receptor
, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptor 1
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptor