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These data suggest that CTGF levels are increased in multiple organs after radiation exposure and that inflammatory cell infiltration may contribute to the elevated levels of CTGF in multiple organs.
During vascular regression, Yap/Taz is activated by blood circulation in the endothelial cells. This leads to induction of Ctgf and actin polymerization. Interference with Yap/Taz activation decreased Ctgf production, which decreased actin polymerization and vascular regression.
this study reveals that CTGF is necessary and sufficient to stimulate glial bridging and natural spinal cord regeneration.
CTGF/CCN2 plays an important role in notochord development and is required for general embryonic development
this study suggested that CTGF antibody protected podocytes against injury in DN mice by reducing beta-catenin (show CTNNB1 Proteins) overexpression and preventing podocyte EMT (show ITK Proteins), which might provide new insight into the mechanism of CTGF inhibition in the treatment of DN.
LPA-LPA1 (show LPAR1 Proteins) signaling initiates profibrotic epithelial cell fibroblast communication mediated by epithelial cell derived connective tissue growth factor.
Down-regulation of CTGF is effective in inhibiting postoperative scarring in vivo. This suggests that RNAi with CTGF siRNA may potentially pave the road for a novel therapeutic strategy to improve glaucoma surgery results.
CTGF role in cardiac fibrosis. Long noncoding RNA H19 (show NCKAP1 Proteins) mediates CTGF expression.
Notch1 (show NOTCH1 Proteins) haploinsufficiency decreased the expression of Ctgf in the aorta and in vitro cell culture system. In vitro studies on SMCs using the Notch1 (show NOTCH1 Proteins) intracellular domain (NICD (show NOTCH1 Proteins)) plasmid, dominant negative mastermind-like (dnMAML), or specific siRNA suggest that Notch1 (show NOTCH1 Proteins), not Notch3 (show NOTCH3 Proteins), directly modulates the expression of CTGF
these findings show that cardiac ERK1/2 activity is modulated in part by TGF-b/Smad (show SMAD1 Proteins) signaling, leading to altered activation of CTGF/CCN2 to mediate fibrosis and alter cardiac function. This identifies a novel mechanism in the development of LMNA (show LMNA Proteins) cardiomyopathy.
the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR (show FRAP1 Proteins)) pathway in neurons regulates CTGF production and secretion, revealing a paracrine mechanism by which neuronal signaling regulates oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC (show SLC12A3 Proteins)).
CCN2 suppression by miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-199a-5p accounts, in part, for low-level fibrogenic gene expression in quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and causes dampened gene expression in activated HSCs after horizontal transfer of miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-199a-5p in exosomes from quiescent HSCs.
In summary, our data suggest that in obstructive nephropathy atrophy increases and fibrosis decreases with age and that this relates to increased BMP signaling, most likely due to higher BMP6 (show BMP6 Proteins) and lower CTGF expression.
Overexpression of CTGF in cardiomyocytes attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy in angiotensin II induced hypertension.
Data suggested that the co-expression of the Hippo transducers TAZ (show TAZ Proteins)/YAP (show YAP1 Proteins) and CTGF may be an adverse prognostic factor in male breast cancer.
These findings suggest that 5-HT (show DDC Proteins) promotes CCN2 production through the 5-HT2AR in growth plates, and that it represses CCN2 production through the 5-HT2BR in articular cartilage for harmonized development of long bones
In addition to well-known anti-inflammatory features, glucocorticoids may have adverse effects on long-term remodeling by TGF-beta1 (show TGFB1 Proteins)-independent induction of CTGF in lung cells. Simultaneous treatment with caffeine may attenuate glucocorticoid-induced expression of CTGF, thereby promoting restoration of lung homeostasis.
CytoD modified MKL1, a coactivator of serum response factor (SRF) regulating CTGF induction, and promoted its nuclear localization.
CTGF silencing aggravated energy stress induced by hyperthermia and enhanced apoptosis of hyperthermia-resistant cancers.
In lesional SSc (show CYP11A1 Proteins) dermal fibroblasts, GKT-137831 reduced alpha-SMA (show SMN1 Proteins) and CCN2 protein overexpression and collagen gel contraction
High glucose-induced cytoplasmic translocation of Dnmt3a (show DNMT3A Proteins) contributes to CTGF hypo-methylation in mesangial cells.
Results demonstrat that GDF8 (show MSTN Proteins) stimulates the expression and secretion of CTGF in human granulosa cells and provide evidence that both proteins may play critical roles in the regulation of extracellular matrix formation in these cells.
combined inhibition of ALK5 (show TGFBR1 Proteins) and CTGF is required to prevent TGFbeta (show TGFB1 Proteins)-induced nodule formation in tri (show VANGL2 Proteins)-cellular cultures
YAP (show YAP1 Proteins)/TAZ (show TAZ Proteins) and Smad2 (show SMAD2 Proteins) regulate CTGF expression in tubular epithelial cells. Reduced nuclear Smad2 (show SMAD2 Proteins) correlated with impaired CTGF secretion in DMOG-treated cells and transient downregulation of Smad2 (show SMAD2 Proteins) interfered with TGFbeta (show TGFB1 Proteins)-1-induced CTGF synthesis. YAP (show YAP1 Proteins) is an indispensable transcription factor involved in CTGF synthesis.
CCN2 was transiently expressed at the leading keratinocyte edge in wound healing.
Atrial fibrillation patients and animals exhibited a significantly increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Angiotension II-induced CTGF expression might be involved in atrial substrate remodeling.
CTGF in trabecular meshwork is modulated by physiological agonists and by increased ocular pressure and mechanical stretch. Regulation of CTGF within outflow pathway may play role in homeostasis of intraocular pressure.
CTGF level was not altered in model of obliterative bronchiolitis.
The results indicate that CTGF suppresses the synthesis of biglycan (show BGN Proteins) but newly induced that of decorin (show DCN Proteins) in the cells when the cell density is low.
Actin cytoskeleton-dependent regulation of CTGF transcription and mRNA stability
A significant increase in TGF-beta1 (show TGFB1 Proteins) and CTGF was found at 6 weeks in the subsynovial connective tissue in a rabbit model of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Stretch is an important primary trigger for CTGF-induction in the overloaded heart.
Connective tissue growth factor is expressed in the naive cornea, lens, iris, and retina, and is expressed immediately after epithelial injury. Loss of CTGF impairs efficient re-epithelialization of corneal wounds.
TGF-beta1 (show TGFB1 Proteins) can inhibit the growth of urethra epithelium cells and induce the expression of CTGF.
Overexpression of CTGF in the blebs after trabeculectomy demonstrates that CTGF may play an important role in the process of wound healing.
Recombinant CTGF added to embryonic mouse neural precursor cell culture increased the number of Sox-2 (show SOX2 Proteins)-, GFAP (show GFAP Proteins)-and GFAP (show GFAP Proteins)/Nestin (show NES Proteins)-positive cells, activated p44 (show GTF2H2 Proteins)/42 signaling, and upregulated fibronectin (show FN1 Proteins). In human glioma cells, it induced GFAP (show GFAP Proteins) and nestin (show NES Proteins).
Data show that connective-tissue growth factor regulates signalling through the Wnt (show WNT2 Proteins) pathway, in accord with its ability to bind to the Wnt (show WNT2 Proteins) co-receptor LDL receptor (show LDLR Proteins)-related protein 6 (LRP6 (show LRP6 Proteins)).
The protein encoded by this gene is a mitogen that is secreted by vascular endothelial cells. The encoded protein plays a role in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, cell adhesion in many cell types, and is related to platelet-derived growth factor. Certain polymorphisms in this gene have been linked with a higher incidence of systemic sclerosis.
WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2
, connective tissue growth factor
, Connective tissue growth factor
, connective tissue growth factor-like
, CCN family member 2
, Connective tissue growth factor precursor (CTGF) (FISP-12 protein) (Hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific protein 24)
, fibroblast inducible secreated protein
, fibroblast inducible secreted protein
, hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific gene product 24
, hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific protein 24
, IGF-binding protein 8
, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 8
, connective tissue growth-related protein
, connective tissue growth factor XCTGF