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Mouse (Murine) FGF21 Protein expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) - ABIN1888798
Stone, Wanders, Orgeron, Cortez, Gettys: Mechanisms of increased in vivo insulin sensitivity by dietary methionine restriction in mice. in Diabetes 2014
Mouse (Murine) FGF21 Protein expressed in Human Cells - ABIN2007779
Arner, Pettersson, Mitchell, Dunbar, Kharitonenkov, Rydén: FGF21 attenuates lipolysis in human adipocytes - a possible link to improved insulin sensitivity. in FEBS letters 2008
Show all 3 Pubmed References
FGF21 increases throughout pregnancy in our healthy cohort with overweight and obesity, independent of the placenta, and does not appear to be sensing the changes in energy balance (reflected in the change in maternal energy stores), but changes in macronutrient status.
FGF21 significantly predicts the incidence of coronary artery disease, the risks of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and renal progression in diabetes. It also predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
FGF21 and CK18 might play differential roles and have complementary value in non-invasive identification and monitoring the outcome of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients.
The association between increased basal and stimulated FGF21 levels with poor metabolic health was no longer present after weight loss. Fructose ingestion in obese humans stimulates FGF21 secretion, and this response is related to systemic metabolism.
FGF21 may defend against hepatic nutrient overload by promoting adaptations that reduce ectopic lipid storage, including inhibiting sugar and alcohol appetite and promoting lipid sequestration in adipose tissue. [Review]
Acute or binge ethanol consumption significantly increases circulating FGF21 levels in both humans and mice. FGF21 does not play a role in acute ethanol clearance. Chronic ethanol consumption in the absence of FGF21 is associated with liver pathology alone or in combination with excess mortality, depending on the type of diet consumed with ethanol. This suggests that FGF21 protects against long term ethanol damage.
analysis of FGF-21 levels in coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease reveals that low FGF-21 is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease
possible role of hepatokine FGF21 in the etiopathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus
The fibroblast growth factor -21 protein was significantly less expressed in liposarcoma than in normal tissue (p<0.05). Fibroblast growth factor -21 protein expression was related to gender, but not age, cell differentiation or tumor size. The patients in the low/no fibroblast growth factor 21 expression group were more likely to relapse and die in a shorter period of time.
These findings suggested that the serum FGF21 levels could be involved in a complex adaptive response to insulin secretion and glucose metabolism in humans.
Taking together from both physiological and genetic levels, we suggest that FGF21 is inversely associated with regional bone density.
besides the NF-kappaB pathway, the mechanism of action of FGF-21 was observed to involve the elevation of IL-10 in the ERK1/2 pathway.
ChREBP and FGF21 constitute a signaling axis likely conserved in humans that mediates an essential adaptive response to fructose ingestion that may participate in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and liver fibrosis.
Excess dietary carbohydrate, but not fat, led to markedly increased FGF21 secretion in humans, notably without protein restriction, and affected glucose and lipid homeostais.
In patients with coronary artery disease at baseline, an elevated serum FGF21 level was associated with development of a major adverse cardiovascular event in the future.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as an endocrine hormone which regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is involved in maintaining of energy homeostasis and adaptation to starvation and low temperature.
FGF21 is a good predictor of acute-on-chronic liver failure and organ failure, is quite specific for cirrhosis, and seems independent of etiology and systemic inflammation.
FGF-21 could regulate the immune response indirectly by influencing the glucose uptake of activated monocytes cells.
The genetic defect leads to a disorder of mitochondrial translation or mtDNA maintenance.
FGF21 levels were reduced after energy-restricted treatments and severely increased after bariatric surgery, independently of the weight reduction magnitude, insulin sensitivity or ketosis; therefore, FGF21 appears to be a marker of severe nutritional stress
The present study shows that expression of the FGF21 gene is strongly up-regulated during the transition period; the up-regulation of FGF21 might play an important role in the adaptation of liver metabolism during early lactation in dairy cows such as in other species.
RESULTS: The results showed that serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in both groups treated with a controlled-energy diet, while FGF-21 levels in both groups treated with moderate-energy diet were low.
liver-derived FGF21 regulates the use of lipid reserves during lactation via focal actions on liver and white adipose tissue.
these results indicate that FGF21 is induced during cisplatin nephrotoxicity to protect renal tubules, and recombinant FGF21 may have therapeutic potential.
CO-stimulated PERK activation and enhanced the levels of FGF21 via the eIF2alpha-ATF4 signaling pathway. The induction of FGF21 by CO attenuated endoreticulum stress- or diet-induced, obesity-dependent hepatic steatosis.
FGF21 alleviated atherosclerosis by ameliorating Fas-mediated apoptosis in apoE-/- mice.
results demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor 21 reduces the increased expression of a subset of genes in the liver in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress
Lack of FGF21 enhances the susceptibility to the development of obesity-related cardiomyopathy.
The acute increase in circulating FGF21 following fructose gavage was absent in ChREBP knockout mice. Induction of ChREBP-beta and its glycolytic, fructolytic, and lipogenic gene targets were attenuated in FGF21 knockout mice fed high-fructose diets.
Data, including data from studies using knockout mice, suggest that control of whole-body energy expenditure by Gcgr agonism requires intact Fxr signaling and Fgf21 secretion in liver. (Gcgr = glucagon receptor glucagon; Fxr = farnesoid X receptor; Fgf21 = fibroblast growth factor-21)
FGF-21 has anti-inflammatory effects in Type 2 diabetes mellitus
These data suggest that Fgf21 acts as one of intrathymic cytokines in the neonatal and juvenile thymus, involving thymocyte development in a beta-Klotho-independent manner.
During pregnancy, both systemic and cardiac-produced Fgf21 act on the heart, leading to the normal physiological cardiac changes that are associated with pregnancy.
our results demonstrated that FGF21 promotes cell cycle exit and enhances myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. This study provided new evidence that FGF21 promotes myogenic differentiation, which could be useful for better understanding the roles of FGF21 in myogenesis.
We will clarify the positive and negative signaling mechanisms which control the stress-related expression of FGF21 through the ISR pathway. Moreover, we will examine the role of FGF21 as an interorgan coordinator of survival functions in metabolic and stress disorders. We conclude that FGF21 can be viewed as a cell non-autonomous enhancer of longevity in mammals.
under nutrient-limiting conditions that stimulate ATF4 activity, TRIB3 is implicated in the regulation of metabolic adaptation by restraining the transcription of Fgf21.
alcohol-induced FGF21 expression is a hepatic adaptive response to lipid dysregulation.
the adipose-derived FGF21-CCL11 axis triggers cold-induced beiging and thermogenesis by coupling sympathetic nervous system to activation of type 2 immunity in subcutaneous white adipose tissue.
These results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates nonesterified fatty acid flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21.
Chronic high-sucrose diet does not lead to obesity in mice. Data suggest that high-sucrose diet leads to up-regulation of Fgf21 expression in liver and brown adipose tissue plus high levels of Fgf21 in plasma which eventually lead to increased energy expenditure and, thus, does not cause obesity in this species.
plasma levels of Fgf21 reflect liver fat accumulation and dysregulation of metabolic pathways in the liver.
The ANT1-deficient muscle mitochondria produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are partially uncoupled. Hence, the muscle respiration under nonphosphorylating conditions is increased. Muscle transcriptome analysis revealed the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, down-regulation of diabetes-related genes, and increased expression of the genes encoding the myokines FGF21 and GDF15.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. The function of this growth factor has not yet been determined.
fibroblast growth factor 21