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Mouse (Murine) FGF21 Protein expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) - ABIN1888798
Stone, Wanders, Orgeron, Cortez, Gettys: Mechanisms of increased in vivo insulin sensitivity by dietary methionine restriction in mice. in Diabetes 2014
Mouse (Murine) FGF21 Protein expressed in Human Cells - ABIN2007779
Arner, Pettersson, Mitchell, Dunbar, Kharitonenkov, Rydén: FGF21 attenuates lipolysis in human adipocytes - a possible link to improved insulin sensitivity. in FEBS letters 2008
Show all 3 Pubmed References
The fibroblast growth factor -21 protein was significantly less expressed in liposarcoma than in normal tissue (p<0.05). Fibroblast growth factor -21 protein expression was related to gender, but not age, cell differentiation or tumor size. The patients in the low/no fibroblast growth factor 21 expression group were more likely to relapse and die in a shorter period of time.
These findings suggested that the serum FGF21 levels could be involved in a complex adaptive response to insulin secretion and glucose metabolism in humans.
Taking together from both physiological and genetic levels, we suggest that FGF21 is inversely associated with regional bone density.
besides the NF-kappaB pathway, the mechanism of action of FGF-21 was observed to involve the elevation of IL-10 in the ERK1/2 pathway.
ChREBP and FGF21 constitute a signaling axis likely conserved in humans that mediates an essential adaptive response to fructose ingestion that may participate in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and liver fibrosis.
Excess dietary carbohydrate, but not fat, led to markedly increased FGF21 secretion in humans, notably without protein restriction, and affected glucose and lipid homeostais.
In patients with coronary artery disease at baseline, an elevated serum FGF21 level was associated with development of a major adverse cardiovascular event in the future.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as an endocrine hormone which regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is involved in maintaining of energy homeostasis and adaptation to starvation and low temperature.
FGF21 is a good predictor of acute-on-chronic liver failure and organ failure, is quite specific for cirrhosis, and seems independent of etiology and systemic inflammation.
FGF-21 could regulate the immune response indirectly by influencing the glucose uptake of activated monocytes cells.
The genetic defect leads to a disorder of mitochondrial translation or mtDNA maintenance.
FGF21 levels were reduced after energy-restricted treatments and severely increased after bariatric surgery, independently of the weight reduction magnitude, insulin sensitivity or ketosis; therefore, FGF21 appears to be a marker of severe nutritional stress
In HIV-infected individuals, FGF21 is significantly positively associated with liver fat. FGF21 decreases in association with reductions in liver fat, GGT, and FIB4, suggesting that FGF21 is upregulated in the context of steatosis and steatohepatitis and is reduced when these conditions improve
crystal structures of free and ligand-bound beta-klotho extracellular regions that reveal the molecular mechanism that underlies the specificity of FGF21 towards beta-klotho and demonstrate how the FGFR is activated in a klotho-dependent manner
In this review, we will summarize the current progress on the roles of FGF21 against metaflammation and metabolic tissue damage [Review]
This finding suggested FGF21 could be involved in the pathophysiology of diastolic heart failure.
FGF21 plasma levels correlate negatively with protein intake.
Serum FGF21 level was significantly correlated with left ventricular systolic function at baseline and higher levels resulted in greater levels of cardiac death.
In conclusion, our study, which focused on hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression, confirmed marked expression of both molecules in the liver of morbidly obese patients with NAFLD.
Serum FGF21 concentrations are decreased in anorexia nervosa and elevated in obesity. They are independently and positively related to BMI and insulin resistance
The present study shows that expression of the FGF21 gene is strongly up-regulated during the transition period; the up-regulation of FGF21 might play an important role in the adaptation of liver metabolism during early lactation in dairy cows such as in other species.
RESULTS: The results showed that serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in both groups treated with a controlled-energy diet, while FGF-21 levels in both groups treated with moderate-energy diet were low.
liver-derived FGF21 regulates the use of lipid reserves during lactation via focal actions on liver and white adipose tissue.
FGF21 alleviated atherosclerosis by ameliorating Fas-mediated apoptosis in apoE-/- mice.
results demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor 21 reduces the increased expression of a subset of genes in the liver in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress
Lack of FGF21 enhances the susceptibility to the development of obesity-related cardiomyopathy.
The acute increase in circulating FGF21 following fructose gavage was absent in ChREBP knockout mice. Induction of ChREBP-beta and its glycolytic, fructolytic, and lipogenic gene targets were attenuated in FGF21 knockout mice fed high-fructose diets.
Data, including data from studies using knockout mice, suggest that control of whole-body energy expenditure by Gcgr agonism requires intact Fxr signaling and Fgf21 secretion in liver. (Gcgr = glucagon receptor glucagon; Fxr = farnesoid X receptor; Fgf21 = fibroblast growth factor-21)
FGF-21 has anti-inflammatory effects in Type 2 diabetes mellitus
These data suggest that Fgf21 acts as one of intrathymic cytokines in the neonatal and juvenile thymus, involving thymocyte development in a beta-Klotho-independent manner.
During pregnancy, both systemic and cardiac-produced Fgf21 act on the heart, leading to the normal physiological cardiac changes that are associated with pregnancy.
our results demonstrated that FGF21 promotes cell cycle exit and enhances myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. This study provided new evidence that FGF21 promotes myogenic differentiation, which could be useful for better understanding the roles of FGF21 in myogenesis.
We will clarify the positive and negative signaling mechanisms which control the stress-related expression of FGF21 through the ISR pathway. Moreover, we will examine the role of FGF21 as an interorgan coordinator of survival functions in metabolic and stress disorders. We conclude that FGF21 can be viewed as a cell non-autonomous enhancer of longevity in mammals.
under nutrient-limiting conditions that stimulate ATF4 activity, TRIB3 is implicated in the regulation of metabolic adaptation by restraining the transcription of Fgf21.
alcohol-induced FGF21 expression is a hepatic adaptive response to lipid dysregulation.
the adipose-derived FGF21-CCL11 axis triggers cold-induced beiging and thermogenesis by coupling sympathetic nervous system to activation of type 2 immunity in subcutaneous white adipose tissue.
These results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates nonesterified fatty acid flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21.
Chronic high-sucrose diet does not lead to obesity in mice. Data suggest that high-sucrose diet leads to up-regulation of Fgf21 expression in liver and brown adipose tissue plus high levels of Fgf21 in plasma which eventually lead to increased energy expenditure and, thus, does not cause obesity in this species.
plasma levels of Fgf21 reflect liver fat accumulation and dysregulation of metabolic pathways in the liver.
The ANT1-deficient muscle mitochondria produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are partially uncoupled. Hence, the muscle respiration under nonphosphorylating conditions is increased. Muscle transcriptome analysis revealed the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, down-regulation of diabetes-related genes, and increased expression of the genes encoding the myokines FGF21 and GDF15.
atheroprotective effect of brown adipose transplantation is BAT-specific and independent of lipid-lowering effect, accompanied by adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of the FGF-21-adiponectin axis.
the suppression of Nrf2 attenuates adipogenesis and decreases FGF21 expression through PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 cells.
these findings elucidate the involvement of abnormal FGF21 expression in early APAP-induced liver impairment. Interestingly, FGF21 may be a promising biomarker of APAP-exposed livers.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. The function of this growth factor has not yet been determined.
fibroblast growth factor 21