SMAD Family Member 2/3 (SMAD2/SMAD3) (AA 142-263) antibody
Alternatives Western Blotting (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunoprecipitation (IP)
|7 references available|
|Price||Product not available in this region.|
|Cross-Reactivity||Human, Dog (Canine), Rat (Rattus)|
|Description||The transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)/activin/BMP family of growth factors plays a diverse and important role in growth, development, and differentiation. These growth factors act through their binding to heteromeric plasma membrane receptor protein kinases which, upon ligand binding, become activated and trigger an intracellular signaling cascade. Specifically, receptor activation induces the translocation of a set of conserved proteins named Smads (Sma- and Mad-related proteins) to the nucleus, resulting in gene activation. Smad2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein of 58 kDa that is phosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus in response to TGFbeta, but not BMP. The overall response to TGFbeta is growth inhibition. The Smad2 gene is located in chromosome 18q21.1 which is often absent in several human cancers. Furthermore, some missense mutations on the Smad2 gene were identified in colorectal carcinomas, suggesting Smad2 may function as a tumor suppressor in normal cells. Investigators should note that potential crossreactivity to Smad3 is predicted based on sequence homology of the immunogen, Mouse Smad2 aa. 142-263. In addition, reactivity to mouse Smad2, using siRNA knockdown, has recently been described (Dzwonek et al.). Reactivity to canine Smad3 has also been reported using nuclear extracts (Lehman et al.).|
1. Since applications vary, each investigator should titrate the reagent to obtain optimal results.
2. Please refer to us for technical protocols.
3. Caution: Sodium azide yields highly toxic hydrazoic acid under acidic conditions. Dilute azide compounds in running water before discarding to avoid accumulation of potentially explosive deposits in plumbing.
4. Source of all serum proteins is from USDA inspected abattoirs located in the United States.
5. For fluorochrome spectra and suitable instrument settings, please refer to us.
|Molecular Weight||58 kDa|
Related Products: ABIN968537, ABIN967389
|Purification||Purified from tissue culture supernatant or ascites by affinity chromatography.|
|Buffer||Aqueous buffered solution containing BSA, glycerol.|
|Preservative||0.09% Sodium azide.|
|Storage||Store undiluted at -20° C.|
|Restrictions||For Research Use only|
|Western blot analysis of Smad2/3 on Jurkat cell lysate. Lane 1: 1:500, lane 2: 1:1000, lane 3: 1:2000 dilution of anti-Smad2/3. HISM cells grown on microscope slides and stained with Smad2/3 antibody.|
Lechleider, de Caestecker, Dehejia et al.: "Serine phosphorylation, chromosomal localization, and transforming growth factor-beta signal transduction by human bsp-1." in: The Journal of biological chemistry, Vol. 271, Issue 30, pp. 17617-20, 1996 (PubMed).
Eppert, Scherer, Ozcelik et al.: "MADR2 maps to 18q21 and encodes a TGFbeta-regulated MAD-related protein that is functionally mutated in colorectal carcinoma." in: Cell, Vol. 86, Issue 4, pp. 543-52, 1996 (PubMed).
Lehmann, Janda, Pierreux et al.: "Raf induces TGFbeta production while blocking its apoptotic but not invasive responses: a mechanism leading to increased malignancy in epithelial cells." in: Genes & development, Vol. 14, Issue 20, pp. 2610-22, 2000 (PubMed).
Hocevar, Smine, Xu et al.: "The adaptor molecule Disabled-2 links the transforming growth factor beta receptors to the Smad pathway." in: The EMBO journal, Vol. 20, Issue 11, pp. 2789-801, 2001 (PubMed).
Hayes, Chawla, Corvera: "TGF beta receptor internalization into EEA1-enriched early endosomes: role in signaling to Smad2." in: The Journal of cell biology, Vol. 158, Issue 7, pp. 1239-49, 2002 (PubMed).
Luo, Nieves, Kzhyshkowska et al.: "Endogenous transforming growth factor-beta receptor-mediated Smad signaling complexes analyzed by mass spectrometry." in: Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, Vol. 5, Issue 7, pp. 1245-60, 2006 (PubMed).
Dzwonek, Preobrazhenska, Cazzola et al.: "Smad3 is a key nonredundant mediator of transforming growth factor beta signaling in Nme mouse mammary epithelial cells." in: Molecular cancer research : MCR, Vol. 7, Issue 8, pp. 1342-53, 2009 (PubMed).
|Reactivities||Human (4), Rat (Rattus) (4), Mouse (Murine) (3)|
|Applications||Western Blotting (WB) (4), ELISA (3), Immunohistochemistry (IHC) (2), Immunofluorescence (IF) (1), Immunoprecipitation (IP) (1)|