Synonyms: c Raf,C-raf,C-Raf proto-oncogene,serine/threonine kinase,CMD1NN,Craf 1 transforming gene,cRaf,Craf1 transforming gene,EC 220.127.116.11,kinase Raf1,Murine sarcoma 3611 oncogene 1,NS5,Oncogene MIL,Oncogene RAF1,OTTHUMP00000160218,OTTHUMP00000207813,OTTHUMP00000209389,Protein kinase raf 1,Proto-oncogene c-RAF,Raf 1,Raf 1 proto oncogene serine/threonine kinase,RAF,Raf proto oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase,RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase,RAF-1,RAF1,RAF1,Similar to murine leukemia viral (V-raf-1) oncogene homolog 1,TRANSFORMING REPLICATION-DEFECTIVE MURINE RETROVIRUS 3611-MSV,v raf 1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1,v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog 1,v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene-like protein 1,vraf1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1
Background: This gene is the cellular homolog of viral raf gene (v-raf). The encoded protein is a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), which functions downstream of the Ras family of membrane associated GTPases to which it binds directly. Once activated, the cellular RAF1 protein can phosphorylate to activate the dual specificity protein kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate to activate the serine/threonine specific protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2. Activated ERKs are pleiotropic effectors of cell physiology and play an important role in the control of gene expression involved in the cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with Noonan syndrome 5 and LEOPARD syndrome 2.