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RTK Signaling

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are membrane bound kinases that are activated upon binding of receptor specific ligands. They make up the largest class of membrane receptors that trigger signaling cascades through their inherent enzymatic activity. These structures, activation mechanisms and key components of the signaling pathways are highly conserved in metazoans. There are 58 known RTKs in humans, which are grouped into 20 classes depending on topology.

RTKs are fairly promiscuous receptors, and activating stimuli comprise a plethora of growth factors, hormones, and cytokines. Most RTKs form dimers and become active upon ligand binding. The active RTK phosphorylates activators of downstream signaling cascades such as NF-kB, MAPK, Ca2+ dependent signaling, and the JAK-STAT pathway.

RTKs affect a wide spectrum of processes ranging from cytoskeleton dynamics, cell growth and differentiation to inflammation, apoptosis, and tumor progression. In spite of the exceptionally high variety of receptors and outcomes, RTKs engage only a limited set of core processes. Therefore, quantitative analysis of factors like an RTK’s expression profile are crucial for the understanding of the signaling processes and predicting qualitative outcomes.

Ligand

ANGPT1 - Angiopoietin 1

Angiopoietins are proteins with important roles in vascular development and angiogenesis. All angiopoietins bind with similar affinity to an endothelial cell-specific tyrosine-protein kinase receptor. The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted glycoprotein that activates the receptor by inducing its tyrosine phosphorylation. It plays a critical role in mediating reciprocal interactions...   More...

ANGPT2 - Angiopoietin 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an antagonist of angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and endothelial TEK tyrosine kinase (TIE-2, TEK). The encoded protein disrupts the vascular remodeling ability of ANGPT1 and may induce endothelial cell apoptosis. Three transcript variants encoding three different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the nerve growth factor family. It is induced by cortical neurons, and is necessary for survival of striatal neurons in the brain. Expression of this gene is reduced in both Alzheimer's and Huntington disease patients. This gene may play a role in the regulation of stress response and in the biology of mood disorders. Multiple transcript variants...   More...

Figf - FIGF

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF) family and is active in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and endothelial cell growth. This secreted protein undergoes a complex proteolytic maturation, generating multiple processed forms which bind and activate VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 receptors. This protein is...   More...

COL11A2 (Collagen, Type XI, alpha 2):

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but separate from the gene for retinoid X receptor beta. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Proteolytic processing of this type XI chain produces PARP, a...   More...

EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor):

This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor superfamily. The encoded protein is synthesized as a large precursor molecule that is proteolytically cleaved to generate the 53-amino acid epidermal growth factor peptide. This protein acts a potent mitogenic factor that plays an important role in the growth, proliferation and differentiation of numerous cell types. This protein acts by...   More...

FGF6 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 6):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene displayed oncogenic transforming activity when transfected into...   More...

FGF7 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 7):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein is a potent epithelial cell-specific growth factor, whose...   More...

GDNF (Glial Cell Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor):

This gene encodes a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein was shown to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy. The encoded protein is processed to a mature secreted form that exists as a homodimer. The mature form of the protein is a ligand for the...   More...

LGALS3 - Galectin 3

This gene encodes a member of the galectin family of carbohydrate binding proteins. Members of this protein family have an affinity for beta-galactosides. The encoded protein is characterized by an N-terminal proline-rich tandem repeat domain and a single C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain. This protein can self-associate through the N-terminal domain allowing it to bind to multivalent...   More...

MDK (Midkine (Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 2)):

This gene encodes a member of a small family of secreted growth factors that binds heparin and responds to retinoic acid. The encoded protein promotes cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, in particular during tumorigenesis. This gene has been targeted as a therapeutic for a variety of different disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been...   More...

NGFB (Nerve Growth Factor beta):

This gene is a member of the NGF-beta family and encodes a secreted protein which homodimerizes and is incorporated into a larger complex. This protein has nerve growth stimulating activity and the complex is involved in the regulation of growth and the differentiation of sympathetic and certain sensory neurons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic...   More...

PDGFD (Platelet Derived Growth Factor D):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family. The four members of this family are mitogenic factors for cells of mesenchymal origin and are characterized by a core motif of eight cysteines, seven of which are found in this factor. This gene product only forms homodimers and, therefore, does not dimerize with the other three family members. It differs...   More...

TUB (Tubby Homolog (Mouse)):

This gene encodes a member of the Tubby family of bipartite transcription factors. The encoded protein may play a role in obesity and sensorineural degradation. The crystal structure has been determined for a similar protein in mouse, and it functions as a membrane-bound transcription regulator that translocates to the nucleus in response to phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Two transcript variants...   More...

HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor (Hepapoietin A, Scatter Factor)):

RTK

TYRO3 (TYRO3 Protein Tyrosine Kinase):

The gene is part of a 3-member transmembrane receptor kinase receptor family with a processed pseudogene distal on chromosome 15. The encoded protein is activated by the products of the growth arrest-specific gene 6 and protein S genes and is involved in controlling cell survival and proliferation, spermatogenesis, immunoregulation and phagocytosis. The encoded protein has also been identified...   More...

AATK (Apoptosis-Associated tyrosine Kinase):

The protein encoded by this gene contains a tyrosine kinase domain at the N-terminus and a proline-rich domain at the C-terminus. This gene is induced during apoptosis, and expression of this gene may be a necessary pre-requisite for the induction of growth arrest and/or apoptosis of myeloid precursor cells. This gene has been shown to produce neuronal differentiation in a neuroblastoma cell...   More...

AXL (AXL Receptor tyrosine Kinase):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. Although it is similar to other receptor tyrosine kinases, this protein represents a unique structure of the extracellular region that juxtaposes IgL and FNIII repeats. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding growth factors like vitamin K-dependent protein...   More...

MERTK (C-Mer Proto-Oncogene Tyrosine Kinase):

This gene is a member of the MER/AXL/TYRO3 receptor kinase family and encodes a transmembrane protein with two fibronectin type-III domains, two Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains, and one tyrosine kinase domain. Mutations in this gene have been associated with disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis pathway and onset of autosomal recessive retinitis...   More...

EPHA3 - EPH Receptor A3

This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. EPH and EPH-related receptors have been implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. Receptors in the EPH subfamily typically have a single kinase domain and an extracellular region containing a Cys-rich domain and 2 fibronectin type III repeats. The ephrin receptors...   More...

EPHA4 - EPH Receptor A4

This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. EPH and EPH-related receptors have been implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. Receptors in the EPH subfamily typically have a single kinase domain and an extracellular region containing a Cys-rich domain and 2 fibronectin type III repeats. The ephrin receptors...   More...

EPHA5 - EPH Receptor A5

This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. EPH and EPH-related receptors have been implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. Receptors in the EPH subfamily typically have a single kinase domain and an extracellular region containing a Cys-rich domain and 2 fibronectin type III repeats. The ephrin receptors...   More...

Epha6 - EPH Receptor A6

Receptor tyrosine kinase which binds promiscuously GPI- anchored ephrin-A family ligands residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signaling into neighboring cells. The signaling pathway downstream of the receptor is referred to as forward signaling while the signaling pathway downstream of the ephrin ligand is referred to as reverse signaling (By similarity).   More...

EPHA8 - EPH Receptor A8

This gene encodes a member of the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. EPH and EPH-related receptors have been implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. Receptors in the EPH subfamily typically have a single kinase domain and an extracellular region containing a Cys-rich domain and 2 fibronectin type III repeats. The ephrin...   More...

FGFR1 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein consists of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like...   More...

FGFR2 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein consists of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like...   More...

INSR - Insulin Receptor

After removal of the precursor signal peptide, the insulin receptor precursor is post-translationally cleaved into two chains (alpha and beta) that are covalently linked. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

MST1R (Macrophage Stimulating 1 Receptor (C-Met-Related tyrosine Kinase)):

This gene encodes a cell surface receptor for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) with tyrosine kinase activity. The mature form of this protein is a heterodimer of disulfide-linked alpha and beta subunits, generated by proteolytic cleavage of a single-chain precursor. The beta subunit undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation upon stimulation by MSP. This protein is expressed on the ciliated...   More...

NTRK1 - TRKA

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTKR) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. The presence of this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in specifying sensory neuron subtypes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital...   More...

NTRK2 - TRKB

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with obesity and mood disorders. Alternate transcriptional splice variants...   More...

KIT (Mast/stem Cell Growth Factor Receptor):

This gene encodes the human homolog of the proto-oncogene c-kit. C-kit was first identified as the cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit. This protein is a type 3 transmembrane receptor for MGF (mast cell growth factor, also known as stem cell factor). Mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, mast cell disease, acute myelogenous lukemia,...   More...

ALK (Anaplastic Lymphoma Receptor tyrosine Kinase):

FLT1 (Fms-Related tyrosine Kinase 1 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/vascular Permeability Factor Receptor)):

PDGFRA (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor, alpha Polypeptide):

KCNH8 (Potassium Voltage-Gated Channel, Subfamily H (Eag-Related), Member 8):

TIE1 (tyrosine Kinase with Immunoglobulin-Like and EGF-Like Domains 1):

ERBB4 (V-Erb-A erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 4 (Avian)):

Adaptors

SHC1 (SHC (Src Homology 2 Domain Containing) Transforming Protein 1):

This gene encodes three main isoforms that differ in activities and subcellular location. While all three are adapter proteins in signal transduction pathways, the longest (p66Shc) may be involved in regulating life span and the effects of reactive oxygen species. The other two isoforms, p52Shc and p46Shc, link activated receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras pathway by recruitment of the...   More...

SHC2 (SHC (Src Homology 2 Domain Containing) Transforming Protein 2):

predicted to be a member of the Shc family of adaptor proteins that bind to receptor tyrosine kinases and mediate cell signalling [RGD, Feb 2006].   More...

GAB1 (GRB2-Associated Binding Protein 1):

SHC3 (SHC (Src Homology 2 Domain Containing) Transforming Protein 3):

GEF

RASGRF1 (Ras Protein-Specific Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC25 gene product. Functional analysis has demonstrated that this protein stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAS protein. The studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that the Ras-GEF activity of this protein in brain can be activated by Ca2+ influx, muscarinic...   More...

SOS1 (Son of Sevenless Homolog 1 (Drosophila)):

This gene encodes a protein that is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS proteins, membrane proteins that bind guanine nucleotides and participate in signal transduction pathways. GTP binding activates and GTP hydrolysis inactivates RAS proteins. The product of this gene may regulate RAS proteins by facilitating the exchange of GTP for GDP. Mutations in this gene are associated with...   More...

SOS2 (Son of Sevenless Homolog 2 (Drosophila)):

GTPase

RHOG (Ras Homolog Family Member G):

This gene encodes a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, which cycle between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states and function as molecular switches in signal transduction cascades. Rho proteins promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulate cell shape, attachment, and motility. The encoded protein facilitates translocation of a functional guanine nucleotide...   More...

RAC2 (Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 2 (Rho Family, Small GTP Binding Protein Rac2)):

The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

RAC3 (Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 3 (Rho Family, Small GTP Binding Protein Rac3)):

Inhibitor

DEPTOR (DEP Domain Containing mTOR-Interacting Protein):

Negative regulator of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling pathways. Inhibits the kinase activity of both complexes (By similarity).   More...

TSC1 (Tuberous Sclerosis 1):

This gene encodes a growth inhibitory protein thought to play a role in the stabilization of tuberin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with tuberous sclerosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009].   More...

TSC2 (Tuberous Sclerosis 2):

Mutations in this gene lead to tuberous sclerosis complex. Its gene product is believed to be a tumor suppressor and is able to stimulate specific GTPases. The protein associates with hamartin in a cytosolic complex, possibly acting as a chaperone for hamartin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

Kinase

MAPK1 - ERK2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its...   More...

MAPK3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its...   More...

PAK1 (P21-Activated Kinase 1):

This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternatively spliced transcript...   More...

PAK2 (P21-Activated Kinase 2):

The p21 activated kinases (PAK) are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and RAC1, and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic...   More...

PAK4 (P21-Activated Kinase 4):

PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, include PAK1, PAK2, PAK3 and PAK4. PAK proteins are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. They serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. PAK4 interacts specifically with the...   More...

AKT1 - AKT

The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through...   More...

AKT2 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2):

This gene is a putative oncogene encoding a protein belonging to a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases containing SH2-like (Src homology 2-like) domains. The gene was shown to be amplified and overexpressed in 2 of 8 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and 2 of 15 primary ovarian tumors. Overexpression contributes to the malignant phenotype of a subset of human ductal pancreatic cancers. The encoded...   More...

AKT3 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (Protein Kinase B, Gamma)):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the AKT, also called PKB, serine/threonine protein kinase family. AKT kinases are known to be regulators of cell signaling in response to insulin and growth factors. They are involved in a wide variety of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, as well as glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake....   More...

PIK3CG (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, gamma Polypeptide):

Messenger

Phosphatase

PPP3CA (Protein Phosphatase 3, Catalytic Subunit, alpha Isoform):

catalytic subunit of Calcineurin (CaN), ubiquitously expressed Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein phosphatase\; mediates activities of transcription factors and ion channels\; involved in regulation of T-cell activation [RGD, Feb 2006].   More...

PTPN11 (Protein tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the...   More...

PPP3CB (Protein Phosphatase 3, Catalytic Subunit, beta Isozyme):

PPP3CC (Protein Phosphatase 3, Catalytic Subunit, gamma Isozyme):

Phospholipase

PLCG2 - Phospholipase C gamma 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane signaling enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate to 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), using calcium as a cofactor. IP3 and DAG are second messenger molecules important for transmitting signals from growth factor receptors and immune system receptors across the...   More...

PLCG1 - Phospholipase C gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of receptor-mediated tyrosine kinase activators. For example, when activated by SRC, the encoded protein causes the Ras guanine nucleotide...   More...

PLD2 - Phospholipase D2

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid and choline. The activity of the encoded enzyme is enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and ADP-ribosylation factor-1. This protein localizes to the peripheral membrane and may be involved in cytoskeletal organization, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation, and/or...   More...

Pro-apoptotic

BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase,...   More...

Protease

CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   More...

Protein kinase

IKBKB (Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase beta):

The protein encoded by this gene phosphorylates the inhibitor in the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex, causing dissociation of the inhibitor and activation of NF-kappa-B. The encoded protein itself is found in a complex of proteins. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011].   More...

JAK1 (Janus Kinase 1):

Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), is a member of a new class of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK) characterized by the presence of a second phosphotransferase-related domain immediately N-terminal to the PTK domain. The second phosphotransferase domain bears all the hallmarks of a protein kinase, although its structure differs significantly from that of the PTK and threonine/serine kinase family members....   More...

JAK2 (Janus Kinase 2):

This gene product is a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a specific subset of cytokine receptor signaling pathways. It has been found to be constituitively associated with the prolactin receptor and is required for responses to gamma interferon. Mice that do not express an active protein for this gene exhibit embryonic lethality associated with the absence of definitive erythropoiesis....   More...

IKBKG (Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase gamma):

Regulator

EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1):

This gene encodes one member of a family of translation repressor proteins. The protein directly interacts with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is a limiting component of the multisubunit complex that recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5' end of mRNAs. Interaction of this protein with eIF4E inhibits complex assembly and represses translation. This protein is...   More...

MLST8 (mTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog):

RHEB (Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain):

This gene is a member of the small GTPase superfamily and encodes a lipid-anchored, cell membrane protein with five repeats of the RAS-related GTP-binding region. This protein is vital in regulation of growth and cell cycle progression due to its role in the insulin/TOR/S6K signaling pathway. The protein has GTPase activity and shuttles between a GDP-bound form and a GTP-bound form, and...   More...

Transcription factor

JUN - C-JUN

This gene is the putative transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus 17. It encodes a protein which is highly similar to the viral protein, and which interacts directly with specific target DNA sequences to regulate gene expression. This gene is intronless and is mapped to 1p32-p31, a chromosomal region involved in both translocations and deletions in human malignancies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul...   More...

NFATC1 (Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells, Cytoplasmic, Calcineurin-Dependent 1):

The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and an inducible nuclear component. Proteins belonging to this family of transcription factors play a central role in...   More...

NFkBP65 - p65

NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is...   More...

STAT1 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1, 91kDa):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein can be activated by various ligands including interferon-alpha,...   More...

STAT3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Acute-Phase Response Factor)):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein is activated through phosphorylation in response to various cytokines and...   More...

NFAT5 (Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells 5, Tonicity-Responsive):

NFAT1 (Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells, Cytoplasmic, Calcineurin-Dependent 2):

NFATC3 (Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells, Cytoplasmic, Calcineurin-Dependent 3):

NFATC4 (Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells, Cytoplasmic, Calcineurin-Dependent 4):

NFKB1 (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells 1):

Others

ABI1 (Abl-Interactor 1):

This gene encodes a member of the Abelson-interactor family of adaptor proteins. These proteins facilitate signal transduction as components of several multiprotein complexes, and regulate actin polymerization and cytoskeletal remodeling through interactions with Abelson tyrosine kinases. The encoded protein plays a role in macropinocytosis as a component of the WAVE2 complex, and also forms a...   More...

ARPC1B (Actin Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 1B, 41kDa):

This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. It is...   More...

ACTR2 (ARP2 Actin-Related Protein 2 Homolog (Yeast)):

The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined\; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by...   More...

NCKAP1 (NCK Associated Protein 1):

interacts with Nck and may be involved in the downstream signaling of Nck [RGD, Feb 2006].   More...

WIPF1 (WAS/WASL Interacting Protein Family, Member 1):

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