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MAPK Signaling

Phosphorylation is the reversible process of attaching a phosphate group to a specific amino-acid residue on a protein. Functionally, phosphorylation acts as a simple molecular switch that can activate, deactivate, or modulate the function of a protein. Addition and removal of phosphate groups provide spatial and temporal control over protein activity. Phosphorylation is tightly controlled by a competing interdependent network of kinases - which donate phosphate groups to a substrate protein, and phosphorylases - which remove them from a substrate. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of enzymatic kinases that phosphorylate many different target substrates. MAP-kinases are part of a larger, tiered phosphorylation cascade that includes MAP2Ks and MAP3Ks. This tiered organization affords flexibility, allowing a broad range of higher-order kinases to respond to stimuli and control cellular function through activation of a smaller subset of MAP-kinases that interact directly with other functional proteins. MAP-kinases play a major role in nearly every cellular process. MAPK dependent phosphorylation is implicated in signaling cascades that regulate cell-cycle progression, differentiation, development, and apoptosis. (Additional Reading: Pearson G, Robinson F, Beers Gibson T, Xu BE, Karandikar M, Berman K, Cobb MH (April 2001). "Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways: regulation and physiological functions". Endocr. Rev. 22 (2): 153–83.)


MAPK10 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10):

MAPK11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 11):

MAPK4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 4):

MAPK7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7):



MAP3K11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 11):

MAP3K12 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 12):

MAP3K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 2):

MAP3K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 3):

MAP3K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4):





EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1):

MKNK2 (MAP Kinase Interacting serine/threonine Kinase 2):

RPS6KA2 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 2):

RPS6KA6 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 6):

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