MAPK Signaling

Phosphorylation is the reversible process of attaching a phosphate group to a specific amino-acid residue on a protein. Functionally, phosphorylation acts as a simple molecular switch that can activate, deactivate, or modulate the function of a protein. Addition and removal of phosphate groups provide spatial and temporal control over protein activity. Phosphorylation is tightly controlled by a competing interdependent network of kinases - which donate phosphate groups to a substrate protein, and phosphorylases - which remove them from a substrate. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of enzymatic kinases that phosphorylate many different target substrates. MAP-kinases are part of a larger, tiered phosphorylation cascade that includes MAP2Ks and MAP3Ks. This tiered organization affords flexibility, allowing a broad range of higher-order kinases to respond to stimuli and control cellular function through activation of a smaller subset of MAP-kinases that interact directly with other functional proteins. MAP-kinases play a major role in nearly every cellular process. MAPK dependent phosphorylation is implicated in signaling cascades that regulate cell-cycle progression, differentiation, development, and apoptosis. (Additional Reading: Pearson G, Robinson F, Beers Gibson T, Xu BE, Karandikar M, Berman K, Cobb MH (April 2001). "Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways: regulation and physiological functions". Endocr. Rev. 22 (2): 153–83.)


p38 (MAP kinase p38):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires...   More...


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its...   More...
Antigens in this category:
MAPK10 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10): MAPK10 antibodies MAPK10 ELISA Kits MAPK10 Proteins
MAPK11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 11): MAPK11 antibodies MAPK11 ELISA Kits MAPK11 Proteins
MAPK12 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 12): MAPK12 antibodies MAPK12 ELISA Kits MAPK12 Proteins
MAPK13 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 13): MAPK13 antibodies MAPK13 ELISA Kits MAPK13 Proteins
MAPK14 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14): MAPK14 antibodies MAPK14 ELISA Kits MAPK14 Proteins
MAPK3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3): MAPK3 antibodies MAPK3 ELISA Kits MAPK3 Proteins
MAPK4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 4): MAPK4 antibodies MAPK4 ELISA Kits MAPK4 Proteins
MAPK6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6): MAPK6 antibodies MAPK6 ELISA Kits MAPK6 Proteins
MAPK7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7): MAPK7 antibodies MAPK7 ELISA Kits MAPK7 Proteins
MAPK8 - JNK: MAPK8 antibodies MAPK8 ELISA Kits MAPK8 Proteins
MAPK9 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9): MAPK9 antibodies MAPK9 ELISA Kits MAPK9 Proteins


MAP2K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon...   More...

MAP2K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in...   More...
Antigens in this category:
MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3): MAP2K3 antibodies MAP2K3 ELISA Kits MAP2K3 Proteins
MAP2K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4): MAP2K4 antibodies MAP2K4 ELISA Kits MAP2K4 Proteins
MAP2K5 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 5): MAP2K5 antibodies MAP2K5 ELISA Kits MAP2K5 Proteins
MAP2K6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 6): MAP2K6 antibodies MAP2K6 ELISA Kits MAP2K6 Proteins
MAP2K7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 7): MAP2K7 antibodies MAP2K7 ELISA Kits MAP2K7 Proteins


MAP3K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in...   More...

MAP3K11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 11):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the...   More...
Antigens in this category:
MAP3K12 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 12): MAP3K12 antibodies MAP3K12 ELISA Kits MAP3K12 Proteins
MAP3K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 2): MAP3K2 antibodies MAP3K2 ELISA Kits MAP3K2 Proteins
MAP3K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 3): MAP3K3 antibodies MAP3K3 ELISA Kits MAP3K3 Proteins
MAP3K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4): MAP3K4 antibodies MAP3K4 ELISA Kits MAP3K4 Proteins
MAP3K5 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5): MAP3K5 antibodies MAP3K5 ELISA Kits MAP3K5 Proteins
ARAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma 3611 Viral Oncogene Homolog): ARAF antibodies ARAF ELISA Kits ARAF Proteins
BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1): BRAF antibodies BRAF ELISA Kits BRAF Proteins
RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1): RAF1 antibodies RAF1 ELISA Kits RAF1 Proteins


ARAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma 3611 Viral Oncogene Homolog):

This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012].   More...

BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1):

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation and a distinctive facial...   More...
Antigens in this category:
RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1): RAF1 antibodies RAF1 ELISA Kits RAF1 Proteins


NRAS - GTPase NRas

This is an N-ras oncogene encoding a membrane protein that shuttles between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. This shuttling is regulated through palmitoylation and depalmitoylation by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. The encoded protein, which has intrinsic GTPase activity, is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase activating protein. Mutations in...   More...

HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog):

This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange...   More...


CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle 42 (GTP Binding Protein, 25kDa)):

The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase of the Rho-subfamily, which regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including cell morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The product of oncogene Dbl was reported to...   More...

PAK1 (P21-Activated Kinase 1):

This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternatively spliced transcript...   More...
Antigens in this category:
GCK (Glucokinase (Hexokinase 4)): GCK antibodies GCK ELISA Kits GCK Proteins
NRAS - GTPase NRas: NRAS antibodies NRAS ELISA Kits NRAS Proteins
MAP4K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 3): MAP4K3 antibodies MAP4K3 ELISA Kits MAP4K3 Proteins
PAK2 (P21-Activated Kinase 2): PAK2 antibodies PAK2 ELISA Kits PAK2 Proteins
HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog): HRAS antibodies HRAS ELISA Kits HRAS Proteins


ATF2 (Activating Transcription Factor 2):

This gene encodes a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein was shown to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy. The encoded protein is processed to a mature secreted form that exists as a homodimer. The mature form of the protein is a ligand for the...   More...

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   More...

BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase,...   More...

BTG2 (BTG Family, Member 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BTG/Tob family. This family has structurally related proteins that appear to have antiproliferative properties. This encoded protein is involved in the regulation of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

CANX - Calnexin

This gene encodes a member of the calnexin family of molecular chaperones. The encoded protein is a calcium-binding, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that interacts transiently with newly synthesized N-linked glycoproteins, facilitating protein folding and assembly. It may also play a central role in the quality control of protein folding by retaining incorrectly folded protein...   More...

CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   More...
Antigens in this category:
CDT1 (Chromatin Licensing and DNA Replication Factor 1): CDT1 antibodies CDT1 ELISA Kits CDT1 Proteins
CTTN - Cortactin: CTTN antibodies CTTN ELISA Kits CTTN Proteins
DAPK1 - DAP Kinase 1: DAPK1 antibodies DAPK1 ELISA Kits DAPK1 Proteins
ELK1 (ELK1, Member of ETS Oncogene Family): ELK1 antibodies ELK1 ELISA Kits ELK1 Proteins
EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1): EIF4EBP1 antibodies EIF4EBP1 ELISA Kits EIF4EBP1 Proteins
GJA1 (Gap Junction Protein, alpha 1, 43kDa): GJA1 antibodies GJA1 ELISA Kits GJA1 Proteins
HSPB1 (Heat Shock 27kDa Protein 1): HSPB1 antibodies HSPB1 ELISA Kits HSPB1 Proteins
HSF4 (Heat Shock Transcription Factor 4): HSF4 antibodies HSF4 ELISA Kits HSF4 Proteins
MCL1 - MCL-1: MCL1 antibodies MCL1 ELISA Kits MCL1 Proteins
JUN - C-JUN: JUN antibodies JUN ELISA Kits JUN Proteins
MKNK1 (MAP Kinase Interacting serine/threonine Kinase 1): MKNK1 antibodies MKNK1 ELISA Kits MKNK1 Proteins
MKNK2 (MAP Kinase Interacting serine/threonine Kinase 2): MKNK2 antibodies MKNK2 ELISA Kits MKNK2 Proteins
MAPT (Microtubule-Associated Protein tau): MAPT antibodies MAPT ELISA Kits MAPT Proteins
MAPKAPK2 - MAPKAP Kinase 2: MAPKAPK2 antibodies MAPKAPK2 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK2 Proteins
MAPKAPK3 - MAPKAP Kinase 3: MAPKAPK3 antibodies MAPKAPK3 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK3 Proteins
MAPKAPK5 - MAPKAP Kinase 5: MAPKAPK5 antibodies MAPKAPK5 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK5 Proteins
PXN - Paxillin: PXN antibodies PXN ELISA Kits PXN Proteins
PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma): PPARG antibodies PPARG ELISA Kits PPARG Proteins
RGS1 (Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 1): RGS1 antibodies RGS1 ELISA Kits RGS1 Proteins
RPS6KA1 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 1): RPS6KA1 antibodies RPS6KA1 ELISA Kits RPS6KA1 Proteins
RPS6KA2 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 2): RPS6KA2 antibodies RPS6KA2 ELISA Kits RPS6KA2 Proteins
RPS6KA3 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 3): RPS6KA3 antibodies RPS6KA3 ELISA Kits RPS6KA3 Proteins
RPS6KA5 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 5): RPS6KA5 antibodies RPS6KA5 ELISA Kits RPS6KA5 Proteins
RPS6KA6 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 6): RPS6KA6 antibodies RPS6KA6 ELISA Kits RPS6KA6 Proteins
SGK1 (serum/glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1): SGK1 antibodies SGK1 ELISA Kits SGK1 Proteins
SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1): SIRT1 antibodies SIRT1 ELISA Kits SIRT1 Proteins
Sorbs3 - Vinexin: Sorbs3 antibodies Sorbs3 ELISA Kits Sorbs3 Proteins
SPZ1 (Spermatogenic Leucine Zipper 1): SPZ1 antibodies SPZ1 ELISA Kits SPZ1 Proteins
STMN1 - Stathmin 1: STMN1 antibodies STMN1 ELISA Kits STMN1 Proteins
TP53 - p53: TP53 antibodies TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteins
YAP1 (Yes-Associated Protein 1): YAP1 antibodies YAP1 ELISA Kits YAP1 Proteins