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GPR25 is activated by Apelin protein.
Apelin signaling regulates lymphatic development by promoting serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B activity in a VEGF-C/VEGF receptor 3-independent manner during zebrafish embryogenesis.
Apelin knockdown inhibits both hypoxia-induced endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and hypoxia-induced vessel regeneration in the caudal fin regeneration of zebrafish.
These findings revealed positive regulatory feedback between physical activity, apelin and muscle function.
These results provide direct evidence that endogenous apelin plays a crucial role in suppressing Ang II-induced cardiac dysfunction and pathological remodeling.
this study provides the first evidence that SIRT1 mediates the anxiolytic effect of apelin-13 in chronic normobaric hypoxia -treated mice through the inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway
Meanwhile ectopic expression of Apelin promoted cellular proliferation, migration and tube formation of EPCs in vitro. In summary, our results indicate that miR-503 regulates proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of EPCs by targeting Apelin.
The study was conducted to determine the effect of DHA on the distribution of apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) in the central nervous system in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model.
Activation of Aplnr signaling by Apelin peptide and small molecule ML-233 increased cell movement and expression of migration related gene and proteins including Actin and Vimentin. Similarly, reducing the expression of Aplnr and Apelin (Apln) by siRNA exposure inhibited cell migration of mouse fibroblast cells
the expression of APLNR (APJ/AGTRL1), the only known receptor for apelin, is predominantly restricted to the endothelial cells.
apelin effects on dynamic mechanical characteristics of single ventricular cardiomyocytes
Study shows that apelin-13 ameliorates chronic normobaric hypoxia-induced anxiety-like behavior in mice. Anxiolytic effects of apelin-13 might be associated with an inhibition of NF-kappaB and microglial activation in the hippocampus.
Results revealed that apelin-13 attenuated brain edema and reduced cellular death by suppressing apoptosis after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.
Apelin-36-[L28C(30kDa-PEG)] provides a starting point for the development of diabetes therapeutics that are devoid of the blood pressure effects associated with canonical APJ activation
miR-503 promotes cardiac fibrosis via miR-503-Apelin-13-TGF-beta-CTGF-collagen production pathway.
Apelin directly interferes with thrombin-mediated signaling pathways and platelet activation, secretion, and aggregation, but not with ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways.
Apelin regulates inflammatory response, diminishes inflammatory remote organ damage and improves survival in an experimental model of burn sepsis, which is at least partly mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent pathway.
apelin is a potential activator of inflammation factors through the PI3K/Akt and Erk signaling pathway and is potential therapeutically relevant to inflammatory responses of microglia cells
we showed the effect of Apelin on RAW264.7 macrophage under normal and hypoxic condition, which could further influence the angiogenesis and inflammation process that promoted by macrophages.
PDL- and Cer-induced CP resulted in increased production of the pancreatic BMP2, apelin, and PTHrP signaling systems and that significant cross talk occurred among pancreatic BMP2, apelin, and PTHrP
Therapeutic potential of apelin to prevent myocardial metabolic abnormalities in heart failure paired with obesity.
Data suggest that CTRP3 (cartducin) up-regulates expression and secretion of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and apelin) in adipocytes; these responses to CTRP3 are down-regulated by insulin resistance or inhibition of AMPK signaling.
apelin is produced by arterial endothelial cells (ECs) during embryogenesis, induces chemotaxis of venous ECs, and promotes the production of secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 by apelin receptor(+) ECs
APJ receptor in granulosa cells and both apelin and the APJ receptor in theca tissues are expressed in bovine ovary.
The data suggest that apelin/APJ system is involved in the mechanism regulating angiogenesis during follicle maturation as well as during corpora lutea formation and function in the bovine ovary.
Given the role of apelin/APJ and Elabela/APJ in cardiovascular and other diseases, we believe that the combination of these agonists and antagonists with apelin and Elabela will play a corresponding role in various pathophysiological effects with further development of research.
Studied blood levels of apelin in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients in association with cardiac remodeling; found patients with hypertension and T2D have significant lower apelin blood levels compared to healthy controls.
Apelin may participate in lymphangiogenesis and the progression of ESCC [esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].
Study provides the biophysical characterization of the two longest isoforms, apelin-55 and -36, in the presence of membrane-mimetic surfactant micelles. Apelin secondary structuring as a function of environment was characterized by far-UV circular dichroism spectropolarimetry alongside NMR spectroscopy.
This meta-analysis revealed that there was no correlation between apelin polymorphisms, rs3761581 and rs56204867, and the prevalence of hypertension.
we discuss the role of apelin/APJ system in vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) from the point of VSMC. Above all, apelin/APJ system is a promising target for managing vascular disease.
This meta-analysis presents evidence that apelin circulatory levels are higher in type 2 diabetic subjects than normal controls. [meta-analysis; review]
this study revealed that Apelin/APJ axis may play a key role in atrial thrombogenesis in Valve Heart Disease patients with Atrial Fibrillation.
Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the plasma apelin-12 level was substantially higher in moyamoya patients than inpatients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease.
In hemodialysis patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, apelin peptide serum levels are significantly lower than patients with normal arterial pressure and this condition is not affected by hemodialysis.
associated with reduced pressure pulsatility in rheumatoid arthritis patients without but not with a high inflammatory burden
Review: apelin has certain therapeutic abilities and can be useful in the treatment of, e.g., insulin resistance, hypertension, etc., but it also can sometimes serve as a negative factor.
In patients with acute obstructive coronary syndrome that had the V103V polymorphism of the APLN gene, they were at greater risk for coronary artery disease.
The aims of this study were to evaluate and correlate circulating chemerin, apelin, vaspin, and omentin-1 levels in obese type 2 diabetic Egyptian patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS), and to assess their usefulness as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers.
increase in VEGF and Apelin, and decrease in Annexin A5 supports roles of hemo-dynamic alterations in fetoplacental circulation and structural alterations in uteroplacental bed occurring in preeclampsia.
these observations suggest apelin-APJ signaling in hepatocytes functions to protect against lipid accumulation in liver through two signaling pathways, that is, via AMPK activation and PPARalpha induction.
Studies suggest that apelin/APJ system may be applied to the treatment of cancers by regulating apoptosis, which may play a vital role in anticancer therapy [review].
miR-497 contributes to oxLDL-induced lipid deposition in macrophages largely via targeting of apelin.
we have identified APLN as putative predictive bvz biomarker in CRC patients. High APLN levels predict a poor response to bvz therapy in CRC.
It was concluded that the presence of apelin/APLNR in the CL of pigs and stimulatory effects of apelin on progesterone secretion and 3beta-HSD levels suggest potential auto/paracrine regulation by apelin in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle.
Apelin and its receptor (APJ) appear to regulate ovarian follicular functions such as steroidogenesis and proliferation via APJ activation and different signaling pathways.
Pig Apelin mRNA was sequenced.
This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G protein coupled receptor APJ. The encoded protein is synthesized as a prepropeptide that is processed into biologically active C-terminal fragments. The peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1.
, apelin, AGTRL1 ligand
, APJ endogenous ligand
, apelin; peptide ligand for APJ receptor
, AGTRL1 ligand