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Apelin signaling regulates lymphatic development by promoting serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (show AKT1 Proteins) activity in a VEGF-C (show VEGFC Proteins)/VEGF receptor (show FLT1 Proteins) 3-independent manner during zebrafish embryogenesis.
Apelin knockdown inhibits both hypoxia-induced endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and hypoxia-induced vessel regeneration in the caudal fin regeneration of zebrafish.
Results revealed that apelin-13 attenuated brain edema and reduced cellular death by suppressing apoptosis after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.
Apelin-36-[L28C(30kDa (show TAF10 Proteins)-PEG (show PAEP Proteins))] provides a starting point for the development of diabetes therapeutics that are devoid of the blood pressure effects associated with canonical APJ (show APLNR Proteins) activation
miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-503 promotes cardiac fibrosis via miR (show MLXIP Proteins)-503-Apelin-13-TGF-beta (show TGFB1 Proteins)-CTGF (show CTGF Proteins)-collagen production pathway.
Apelin directly interferes with thrombin-mediated signaling pathways and platelet activation, secretion, and aggregation, but not with ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways.
Apelin regulates inflammatory response, diminishes inflammatory remote organ damage and improves survival in an experimental model of burn sepsis, which is at least partly mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (show AKT1 Proteins) dependent pathway.
apelin is a potential activator of inflammation factors through the PI3K/Akt (show AKT1 Proteins) and Erk (show EPHB2 Proteins) signaling pathway and is potential therapeutically relevant to inflammatory responses of microglia cells
we showed the effect of Apelin on RAW264.7 macrophage under normal and hypoxic condition, which could further influence the angiogenesis and inflammation process that promoted by macrophages.
PDL- and Cer-induced CP resulted in increased production of the pancreatic BMP2, apelin, and PTHrP signaling systems and that significant cross talk occurred among pancreatic BMP2, apelin, and PTHrP
Therapeutic potential of apelin to prevent myocardial metabolic abnormalities in heart failure paired with obesity.
Data suggest that CTRP3 (cartducin) up-regulates expression and secretion of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and apelin) in adipocytes; these responses to CTRP3 are down-regulated by insulin resistance or inhibition of AMPK signaling.
APJ receptor (show APLNR Proteins) in granulosa cells and both apelin and the APJ receptor (show APLNR Proteins) in theca tissues are expressed in bovine ovary.
The data suggest that apelin/APJ (show APLNR Proteins) system is involved in the mechanism regulating angiogenesis during follicle maturation as well as during corpora lutea formation and function in the bovine ovary.
Apelin-12 influences troponin I levels in the acute phase of STEMI, whereas during the non-acute phase, low apelin levels were associated with a high rate of MACE.
Apelin concentrations are associated with altered plaque stability mediator levels and atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These relations are partially dependent on population origin and systemic inflammatory status.
APLN and APLNR (show APLNR Proteins) are present in human ovarian cells and APLN increases IGF1 (show IGF1 Proteins)-induced steroidogenesis in granulosa cells through an increase in HSD3B (show HSD3B1 Proteins) protein expression and activation of the MAPK3 (show MAPK3 Proteins)/1 and Akt (show AKT1 Proteins) pathways. Therefore, APLN and APLNR (show APLNR Proteins) may play a role in human follicular development and the pathogenesis of PCOS.
Apelin levels mirror the cardiovascular changes seen in pregnancy. Serum and placental apelin levels are decreased in intrauterine growth restriction .
Reduced apelin levels may enhance vasoconstriction to influence high BP and heart's workload in EH and ACS.
Our data suggest that tumor Apelin can be used as a marker to evaluate clinical characteristics and predict prognosis in GC patients.
The apelin/APLNR (show APLNR Proteins) axis regulates cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis.
While plasma apelin increases in obesity, it decreases with increasing age and pubertal stage
Increased plasma concentrations of apelin are associated with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction severity.
Data suggest that the differential expression of Apelin and Apelin receptor APJ (show APLNR Proteins) yields a "self-generated" gradient mechanisms that accelerates the extension of the sprout.
Pig Apelin mRNA was sequenced.
This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G protein coupled receptor APJ. The encoded protein is synthesized as a prepropeptide that is processed into biologically active C-terminal fragments. The peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1.
, apelin, AGTRL1 ligand
, APJ endogenous ligand
, apelin; peptide ligand for APJ receptor
, AGTRL1 ligand