What is a nanobody?
Nanobodies are tiny, recombinantly produced antigen binding VHH fragments, derived from the Alpaca heavy chain IgG antibody (HCAb).
Pictured Bottom Row: The VHH domain represents the absolute smallest antibody fragment necessary to specifically bind an antigen with exceptionally high affinity.
When compared to traditional monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies, nanobodies are:
- More consistent
- Higher affinity
- Easier to use
Nanobodies are offered in a variety of formats, including Nano-Traps, Nano-Boosters, and Chromobodies® .
ChromoTek nanobodies have many superior performance characteristics:
|Characteristic||Monoclonal Antibody||Poylclonal Antibody||Nanobody|
|Size||~150 kDa unconjugated (IgG)||~150 kDa unconjugated (IgG)||Only ~15 kDa unconjugated|
|Binding Affinity||Medium to High (nM - μM Kd values)||Low to Medium (μM Kd values)||Consistently High (pM - nM Kd values)|
|Lot-to-Lot Consistency||High - Hybridoma cell line production can suffer from "drift"||Very Low - Produced in live animals - significant variance between lots and bleeds||Very High - Recombinantly produced from clonal DNA - same product every time!|
How can I use a nanobody?
In short, nearly any way you please!
Nanobodies come in a variety of formats. They are raised against a fairly diverse range of antigens, and are thus highly versatile tools, capable of being employed in a variety of different situations.
The most common uses for a nanobody are experiments that you are likely already familiar with, like immunoprecipitation, or fluorescence microscopy.
There are also a handful of applications where use of a nanobody is feasible, but use of a conventional antibody would be impractical or impossible.
ChromoTek nanobodies are highly versatile reagents:
|Immunoprecipitation||Nano-Traps||Faster, cleaner, more consistent IPs without heavy & light chain contamination|
|Live Cell Imaging||Chromobodies®||Immunolabel intracellular structures in live cells simply and efficiently|
|Fluorescent Protein Enhancement||Nano-Boosters||Reactivate dead fluorescent proteins, or enhance the brightness & photostability of GFP or RFP|
What is a Nano-Trap?
Nano-Traps are nanobodies that have been conjugated to agarose or magnetic beads to facilitate cleaner, faster, simpler immunoprecipitations.
Nano-Traps are available in a variety of formats, and target a variety of common tags, including Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), Red Fluorescent protein (RFP), Myc, GST, & MBP.
Nano-Traps are also available for DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt-1), p53, and PARP-1 for immunoprecipitation of untagged, endogenously expressed protein
Nano-Traps allow you to perform IP experiments with exceptionally high yield, and without contamination from antibody heavy or light chains.
In fact, the GFP-Trap® (pictured above) has already been cited in more than 400 peer reviewed publications. Try one today, and find out why they are so popular!
Nano-Traps significantly improve conventional IP protocols.
- Faster (roughly half the time required for an antibody IP)
- Cleaner (no heavy or light chain antibody contamination)
- More consistent (recombinant reagents for the same interaction every time)
- Higher yield (picomolar to nanomolar affinity constants for GFP and RFP-traps®)
In order to facilitate the most versatility in IP methodology, all nano-traps come conjugated to agarose beads, ferromagnetic beads, or agarose/magnetic beads.
Researchers in the US and Western Europe get next-business day delivery on GFP and RFP-traps purchased at antibodies-online
Nano-Traps available at antibodies-online:
|Antigen||(A)-Type Nano-Trap||(MA)-Type Nano-Trap|
|Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)*||ABIN509397||ABIN1889488|
|Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP)**||ABIN509408||ABIN2452223|
|Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP)**||ABIN509408||ABIN2452223|
|Glutathione S-transferase (GST)||ABIN2656273||Please Inquire|
|Maltose Binding Protein(MBP)||ABIN2870876||Please Inquire|
|p53 (N-terminal Epitope)||ABIN2870929||Please Inquire|
|p53 (C-terminal Epitope)||ABIN2870874||Please Inquire||Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase (PARP1)||ABIN2870878||Please Inquire|
What is a Nano-Booster?
Nano-Boosters use the power of the nanobody to enhance, modulate, or reactivate weak fluorescent signal from a fluorescent protein.
A Nano-Booster is composed of a nanobody, targeting GFP or RFP, and conjugated to an ultra-bright ATTO dye.
The natural fluorescent properties of GFP are enhanced by the supebright ATTO-488 dye coupled to ABIN509419 the GFP-Booster®.
ATTO dyes were specifically chosen for use with Nano-Booster due to their exceptionally bright signal, best-in-class photostability, and narrow Stokes-Shift.
Next-generation imaging techniques like super-resolution microscopy require bright, photostable fluorescent probes.
Nano-Boosters can provide the "signal-boost" required to make fluorescent proteins like GFP bright and stable for super resolution microscopy.
antibodies-online offers the following Nano-Boosters:
|Alexa Fluor® 647||ABIN6810549||Please Inquire|
What is a Chromobody®?
Chromobodies® are novel tools for live-cell intracellular fluorescent labeling.
Chromobodies® are fusion proteins that contain both a nanobody targeting your protein of interest, and a bright, photostable fluorescent protein.
Because nanobodies are produced from recombinant DNA, you can generate Chromobodies® directly, right inside the cell you want to label. No fussing with messy, frustrating, or time consuming fixation or labeling protocols!
Simply start with the appropriate Chromobody® plasmid, transfect it into a compatible cell line, and utilize persistent, intracellular immunolabeling in live cells!
Chromobodies® use your own cells to produce the nanobodies that will label your protein of interest.
No fixation or additional staining steps are necessary. Finally, live-cell intracellular immunolabeling is a viable strategy!